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Wagner H.-T.,German Graduate School of Management & Law | Weitzel T.,University of Bamberg
Journal of Management Information Systems | Year: 2014

It is widely acknowledged that information technology (IT) and business resources need to be well aligned to achieve organizational goals. Yet, year after year, chief information officers still name business-IT alignment a key challenge for IT executives. While alignment research has matured, we still lack a sound theoretical foundation for alignment. Transcending the predominantly strategic executive-level focus, we develop a model of "operational alignment" and IT business value that combines a social perspective of IT and business linkage with a view of interaction between business and IT at nonstrategic levels, such as in daily business operations involving regular staff. Drawing on social capital theory to explain how alignment affects organizational performance, we examine why common suggestions such as "communicate more" are insufficient to strengthen alignment and disclose how social capital between IT and business units drives alignment and ultimately IT business value. Empirical data from 136 firms confirms the profound impact of operational business-IT alignment, composed of social capital and business understanding of IT, on IT flexibility, IT utilization, and organizational performance. The results show that social capital theory is a useful theoretical foundation for understanding how business IT alignment works. The findings suggest that operational alignment is at least as important as strategic alignment for IT service quality; that managers need to focus on operational aspects of alignment beyond communication by fostering knowledge, trust, and respect; and that IT utilization and flexibility are appropriate intermediate goals for business-IT alignment governance. © 2014 M.E. Sharpe, Inc.

Kroenung J.,University of Mannheim | Eckhardt A.,German Graduate School of Management & Law
Information and Management | Year: 2015

Since the introduction of the TAM by Davis et al. (Manage. Sci. 35 (1989) 982-1003), user attitudes have been considered an important determinant of IS adoption. Their impact on behavior is rooted in behavioral frameworks such as the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research, Addison-Wesley, 1975) and the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Processes. 50 (1991) 179-211). However, in IS adoption models, the predictive power of attitudes for behavior as an endogenous variable has proven strong in some circumstances and weak in others (Bagozzi and Yi, Soc. Psychol. Q. 52 (1989) 266-279; Taylor and Todd, MIS Q. 19 (1995) 561-570). These inconsistencies resulted in an exclusion of the construct attitude from further modified versions of the TAM and other models explaining individual IS adoption and use. To better understand the prevalence of inconsistent attitude-behavior relationships in IS adoption models, this research follows social psychological research practices focusing on situational factors prone to result in insignificant attitude-behavior relationships. To test for the impact of these factors on the attitude-behavior relationship, the article raises the level of analysis to a higher level of abstraction. A scientometric literature review and a meta-analysis of 14 top IS journals from 1989 to 2014 finds that three out of four situational factors positively influence the attitude-behavior relationship in the IS fields: voluntariness, technology type, and adoption context. These factors constitute "the attitude cube", which provides conceptual guidance for researchers in assessing the conditions under which the attitude-behavior relationship is likely to be weak or strong. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Schmidt C.G.,EBS University for business and law | Foerstl K.,German Graduate School of Management & Law | Schaltenbrand B.,EBS University for business and law
Journal of Supply Chain Management | Year: 2016

Engagement in corporate environmentalism has become increasingly important across all tiers of the supply chain, from upstream raw material suppliers to downstream retailers. However, the contextual role of a firm's supply chain position (SCP) on the adoption of green supply chain management (GSCM) practices and their performance implications has not been empirically explored. We derive a conceptual model combining the contingent natural resource-based view (NRBV) with stakeholder theory. The resulting hypotheses are tested using cross-industry data of 284 firms utilizing primary and secondary data. Findings reveal a phenomenon we term the Supply Chain Position Paradox: The closer a company is located toward the end consumer, the higher its GSCM practice levels. Conversely, performance gains decrease with company proximity to the end consumer. This paradox is grounded in a mismatch between the level of five specific GSCM practice categories and their respective performance implications. The introduction of SCP as an overlooked contextual factor adds new insights into the "GSCM practice-performance link" and extends current GSCM research. Moreover, our results yield insights to supply chain management executives in optimizing their GSCM practice portfolios. © 2016 Institute for Supply Management, Inc.

Hahn G.J.,German Graduate School of Management & Law | Leucht A.,TU Braunschweig
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2015

Slow-moving demand patterns frequently occur with spare parts as well as items in decentralized retail supply chains with large assortments. These patterns are commonly called lumpy since they exhibit comparably high demand variation and a high fraction of zero-demand events. In this paper, we examine two distribution-based approaches to model lumpy demand processes for inventory control: (i) a generalized hurdle negative binomial model, and (ii) a worst-case non-parametric model that is derived using a test-based approach. Considering a base stock inventory policy, we examine a set of lumpy time series from the industry to exemplify the suitability and benefit of the proposed approaches for managing inventory systems of slow-moving items. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Boeing P.,Center for European Economic Research | Mueller E.,German Graduate School of Management & Law | Sandner P.,TU Munich
Research Policy | Year: 2016

In the past years, Chinese firms increased their spending on R&D substantially and worked on achieving a higher quality level of R&D. We analyze whether different R&D activities show a positive influence on total factor productivity (TFP) for firms of different ownership types and across two time periods. Our panel dataset with annual information allows us to study listed firms over the two time periods 2001-2006 and 2007-2011. Privately owned enterprises (POEs) not only obtain higher returns from own R&D than majority and minority state-owned enterprises (SOEs), they are also able to increase their leading position. Overall strong increases in the size of patent stocks are related to a decreasingly positive or even vanishing influence on TFP. POEs not only produce R&D of the highest quality but are also the only ownership type profiting from higher quality. Up to now research collaborations allow almost no benefit with the only exception stemming from domestic collaborations with individuals. Our comprehensive analysis depicts strengths but also weaknesses of the corporate sector in China. We derive implications for the further development of economic policies. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wagner D.,European University Viadrina | Vollmar G.,VOLLMAR WissenKommunikation Consulting | Wagner H.-T.,German Graduate School of Management & Law
Journal of Enterprise Information Management | Year: 2014

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the potential of information technology, particularly social media and their affordances, in supporting knowledge creation within organizations. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper which integrates the literature on both knowledge creation and social media. Findings: Social media may support knowledge creation by affording new types behaviors that were not possible with previous forms of computer-mediated communication. Research limitations/implications: The paper contributes to theory development by integrating knowledge creation theory and addressing the role of technology, more specifically social media and their affordances, in the knowledge creation process. Practical implications: The results of the paper will help managers to understand which social media affordances support the distinct knowledge creation processes and target their use of technologies within the organization accordingly. Originality/value: The paper is of high theoretical and practical relevance. It bridges two previously unconnected literatures and, in doing so, provides an innovative perspective on how social media and their affordances may support knowledge creation. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Wagner D.,German Graduate School of Management & Law
20th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2014 | Year: 2014

The present paper extends social capital theory by exploring the creation of social capital in a highly innovative, yet under-researched organizational form: online communities. It is shown that social capital development has thus far not been sufficiently theorized and research on how social capital may be created in online communities is missing altogether. Attempting to fill this gap, I draw on earlier contributions to the sociological literature by Coleman and Bourdieu. More specifically, four mechanisms that lead to the creation of social capital are identified, namely closure, stability, interdependence, and interaction. The concept of fluidity is then introduced as an important characteristic of online communities. The impact of fluidity on the mechanisms for social capital development is consequently scrutinized and some propositions are developed. The paper concludes with a discussion of opportunities for overcoming the challenges identified earlier. Implications for research and practice are advanced.

Schafferling A.,German Graduate School of Management & Law
19th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2013 - Hyperconnected World: Anything, Anywhere, Anytime | Year: 2013

As IT spending continuously increased over the past years, it nowadays accounts for a significant amount of total corporate spending. However, firms require the ability to transform these investments into daily operations. Research shows that the organizational IT capability is the key to leverage IT investments and achieve desired outcomes. Research on IT capability thereby evolved as a major stream in the IT business value debate and the number of research articles on IT capability increased constantly over the years. The purpose of this literature review is to provide an overview of current findings on antecedents and consequences of IT capability and to identify directions for further research. This review synthesizes a collection of 30 research articles and thereby contributes to the literature on IT capability by identifying current gaps in the literature and offering new perspectives for future research. © (2013) by the AIS/ICIS Administrative Office All rights reserved.

Wagner H.-T.,German Graduate School of Management & Law
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | Year: 2014

How does business-IT alignment change over time? Using a case study in the aerospace industry, we show how governance mechanisms are interrelated with the development of business-IT alignment over time. The case adds insight into a concrete business situation where activities are unfolded to change organizational practices and to increase performance. We demonstrate specific mechanisms influencing alignment patterns, and show that the development of business-IT alignment precedes finding solutions that enhance business value. In addition, we depict the co-evolvement of shared knowledge and mutual understanding over time. © 2014 IEEE.

Shuradze G.,European University Viadrina | Wagner H.-T.,German Graduate School of Management & Law
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | Year: 2016

Data analytics is an emerging domain in information systems literature and an increasing number of companies try to use data analytics to make sense out of their environment. Accordingly, the ability of companies to leverage digital data to explore new business opportunities becomes important to develop competitive advantage in digitalized world. Consequently, extant literature investigates different dimensions of data analytics, such as technical and organizational dimensions. In spite of all the insights provided and the practical relevance of the topic, extant literature does not provide a coherent view on data analytics and is relatively silent when it comes to measuring the effects. In this paper we conceptualize data analytics capabilities based on IT capabilities literature and provide a measurement instrument allowing to test effects of data analytics capabilities. © 2016 IEEE.

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