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Holler S.,Wuppertal Institute for Climate | Holler S.,German Federal Environment Agency Umweltbundesamt | Viebahn P.,Wuppertal Institute for Climate
Energy Policy | Year: 2016

China is very active in the research and development of CO2 capture and storage technologies (CCS). However, existing estimates for CO2 storage capacity are very uncertain. This uncertainty is due to limited geological knowledge, a lack of large-scale research on CO2 injection, and different assessment approaches and parameter settings. Hence storage scenarios represent a method that can be used by policy makers to demonstrate the range of possible storage capacity developments, to help interpret uncertain results and to identify the limitations of existing assessments. In this paper, three storage scenarios are developed for China by evaluating China-wide studies supplemented with more detailed site- and basin-specific assessments. It is estimated that the greatest storage potential can be found in deep saline aquifers. Oil and gas fields may also be used. Coal seams are only included in the highest storage scenario. In total, the scenarios presented demonstrate that China has an effective storage capacity of between 65 and 1551Gt of CO2. Furthermore, the authors emphasise a need for action to harmonise storage capacity assessment approaches due to the uncertainties involved in the capacity assessments analysed in this study. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ehrlich G.,German Federal Environment Agency Umweltbundesamt | Johncke U.,German Federal Environment Agency Umweltbundesamt | Drost W.,German Federal Environment Agency Umweltbundesamt | Schulte C.,German Federal Environment Agency Umweltbundesamt
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management | Year: 2011

The identification and regulation of substances that combine persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity ("PBT"substances) is one central aspect of the European chemical legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals), because these substances may elicit adverse long-term effects after release to the environment. The determination of a substance that has persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity is based on a set of distinct cutoff criteria identified in Annex XIII of the REACH regulation. Regarding the bioaccumulation potential, the evaluation is focused on the substance's bioconcentration factor as single decisive criterion. In addition, the REACH guidelines provide a selection of standardized test procedures for measuring bioconcentration factor and guidance in appraising test results. However, alternative test results like bioaccumulation factors and biomagnification as well as additional indications for a bioaccumulation potential such as trophic magnification are only allowed for supporting evidence. The currently used test systems with aquatic exposure have been demonstrated to generate reliable results for the majority of neutral, lipophilic organic substances, which facilitate clear decision-making by means of the crucial bioconcentration factor cutoff criteria of Annex XIII. However, certain substance groups such as highly hydrophobic organic substances and amphiphilic and nonlipophilic compounds are difficult to evaluate withcommontest strategies due to inappropriate test systems or accumulation mechanisms not based on lipophilicity. Recent scientific progress has already been made to establish alternative test systems and to refine the bioaccumulation assessment by consideration of additive accumulation mechanisms and indications. This article gives an overview on actual shortcomings in the current bioaccumulation assessment under REACH and also provides suggestions for a refinement of evaluation. © 2011 SETAC. Source

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