German Federal Environment Agency Umweltbundesamt

Dessau, Germany

German Federal Environment Agency Umweltbundesamt

Dessau, Germany
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Ehrlich G.,German Federal Environment Agency Umweltbundesamt | Johncke U.,German Federal Environment Agency Umweltbundesamt | Drost W.,German Federal Environment Agency Umweltbundesamt | Schulte C.,German Federal Environment Agency Umweltbundesamt
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management | Year: 2011

The identification and regulation of substances that combine persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity ("PBT"substances) is one central aspect of the European chemical legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals), because these substances may elicit adverse long-term effects after release to the environment. The determination of a substance that has persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity is based on a set of distinct cutoff criteria identified in Annex XIII of the REACH regulation. Regarding the bioaccumulation potential, the evaluation is focused on the substance's bioconcentration factor as single decisive criterion. In addition, the REACH guidelines provide a selection of standardized test procedures for measuring bioconcentration factor and guidance in appraising test results. However, alternative test results like bioaccumulation factors and biomagnification as well as additional indications for a bioaccumulation potential such as trophic magnification are only allowed for supporting evidence. The currently used test systems with aquatic exposure have been demonstrated to generate reliable results for the majority of neutral, lipophilic organic substances, which facilitate clear decision-making by means of the crucial bioconcentration factor cutoff criteria of Annex XIII. However, certain substance groups such as highly hydrophobic organic substances and amphiphilic and nonlipophilic compounds are difficult to evaluate withcommontest strategies due to inappropriate test systems or accumulation mechanisms not based on lipophilicity. Recent scientific progress has already been made to establish alternative test systems and to refine the bioaccumulation assessment by consideration of additive accumulation mechanisms and indications. This article gives an overview on actual shortcomings in the current bioaccumulation assessment under REACH and also provides suggestions for a refinement of evaluation. © 2011 SETAC.


Holler S.,Wuppertal Institute for Climate | Holler S.,German Federal Environment Agency Umweltbundesamt | Viebahn P.,Wuppertal Institute for Climate
Energy Policy | Year: 2016

China is very active in the research and development of CO2 capture and storage technologies (CCS). However, existing estimates for CO2 storage capacity are very uncertain. This uncertainty is due to limited geological knowledge, a lack of large-scale research on CO2 injection, and different assessment approaches and parameter settings. Hence storage scenarios represent a method that can be used by policy makers to demonstrate the range of possible storage capacity developments, to help interpret uncertain results and to identify the limitations of existing assessments. In this paper, three storage scenarios are developed for China by evaluating China-wide studies supplemented with more detailed site- and basin-specific assessments. It is estimated that the greatest storage potential can be found in deep saline aquifers. Oil and gas fields may also be used. Coal seams are only included in the highest storage scenario. In total, the scenarios presented demonstrate that China has an effective storage capacity of between 65 and 1551Gt of CO2. Furthermore, the authors emphasise a need for action to harmonise storage capacity assessment approaches due to the uncertainties involved in the capacity assessments analysed in this study. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | German Federal Environment Agency Umweltbundesamt
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of hygiene and environmental health | Year: 2012

The German Federal Environment Agency carried out its fourth German Environmental Survey (GerES IV), which is the first survey on children only and the environment-related module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (German acronym: KiGGS), conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (RKI). The German Environmental Surveys are nationwide population studies conducted to determine the exposure to environmental pollutants, to explore exposure pathways and to identify sub-groups with higher exposure. GerES IV was conducted on randomly selected 1790 children aged 3-14 years from the cross-sectional sample of KiGGS. The participants of GerES IV lived in 150 sampling locations all over Germany. Field work was carried out from May 2003 to May 2006. The response rate in GerES IV was 77.3%. Due to the fact that participation in GerES IV was limited to children that had previously participated in the KiGGS study, the total response rate in GerES IV resulted in 52.6%. Response rates did neither differ significantly between West and East Germany, nor between different community sizes, age groups and gender. The basic study programme included blood samples, morning urine, tap water and house dust as well as comprehensive questionnaire-based interviews. In addition, subgroups were studied with regard to noise, hearing capacity and stress hormones, chemical contamination of indoor air and biogenic indoor contamination. A key element of the field work in GerES IV was a home visit to carry out interviews, conduct measurements and collect samples. An exception was blood sampling which was carried out within KiGGS. The quality of field work, data collection, evaluation, and chemical, biological and physical analyses was successfully evaluated by internal and external quality assurance. This comprehensive overview aims at giving other research groups the opportunity to compare different study designs or to adapt their own design to get comparable results.


PubMed | University of Cologne and German Federal Environment Agency Umweltbundesamt
Type: | Journal: Water research | Year: 2016

Synthetic insect repellents are compounds applied to surfaces to discourage insects, mainly mosquitoes, from landing on those surfaces. As some of these repellents have repeatedly been detected in surface waters at significant concentrations, they may also exert repellent effects on aquatic non-target organisms. In running water systems, aquatic invertebrates actively enter downstream drift in order to avoid unfavourable environmental conditions. We thus tested the hypothesis that the widely used insect repellents DEET (N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide), EBAAP (3-[N-butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid ethyl ester) and Icaridin (1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-methylpropyl ester) induce downstream drift behaviour in the aquatic invertebrates Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) and Cloeon dipterum (Insecta, Ephemeroptera), using a laboratory-scale drift assay. We found no clear increase in the drift behaviour of both invertebrate species across a concentration gradient of eight orders of magnitude and even beyond maximum environmental concentrations for any of the three repellents. We found no evidence for a direct drift-inducing activity of insect repellents on aquatic non-target organisms.


PubMed | German Federal Environment Agency Umweltbundesamt
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Integrated environmental assessment and management | Year: 2011

The identification and regulation of substances that combine persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT substances) is one central aspect of the European chemical legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals), because these substances may elicit adverse long-term effects after release to the environment. The determination of a substance that has persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity is based on a set of distinct cutoff criteria identified in Annex XIII of the REACH regulation. Regarding the bioaccumulation potential, the evaluation is focused on the substances bioconcentration factor as single decisive criterion. In addition, the REACH guidelines provide a selection of standardized test procedures for measuring bioconcentration factor and guidance in appraising test results. However, alternative test results like bioaccumulation factors and biomagnification as well as additional indications for a bioaccumulation potential such as trophic magnification are only allowed for supporting evidence. The currently used test systems with aquatic exposure have been demonstrated to generate reliable results for the majority of neutral, lipophilic organic substances, which facilitate clear decision-making by means of the crucial bioconcentration factor cutoff criteria of Annex XIII. However, certain substance groups such as highly hydrophobic organic substances and amphiphilic and nonlipophilic compounds are difficult to evaluate with common test strategies due to inappropriate test systems or accumulation mechanisms not based on lipophilicity. Recent scientific progress has already been made to establish alternative test systems and to refine the bioaccumulation assessment by consideration of additive accumulation mechanisms and indications. This article gives an overview on actual shortcomings in the current bioaccumulation assessment under REACH and also provides suggestions for a refinement of evaluation.

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