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Claessen H.,German Diabetes Center at the Heinrich Heine University | Strassburger K.,German Diabetes Center at the Heinrich Heine University | Tepel M.,German Diabetes Center at the Heinrich Heine University | Waldeyer R.,German Diabetes Center at the Heinrich Heine University | And 20 more authors.
Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes | Year: 2013

Aims: To estimate medication costs in individuals with diagnosed diabetes, undetected diabetes, impaired glucose regulation and normal blood glucose values in a population-based sample by age and sex. Materials and Methods: Using the KORA F4 follow-up survey, conducted in 2006-2008 (n=2611, age 40-82 years), we identified individuals' glucose tolerance status by means of an oral glucose tolerance test. We assessed all medications taken regularly, calculated age-sex specific medication costs and estimated cost ratios for total, total without antihyperglycemic drugs, and cardiovascular medication, using multiple 2-part regression models. Results: Compared to individuals with normal glucose values, costs were increased in known diabetes, undetected diabetes and impaired glucose regulation, which was more pronounced in participants aged 40-59 years than in those aged 60-82 years (cost ratios for all medications: 40-59 years: 2.85; 95%-confidence interval: 1.78-4.54, 2.00; 1.22-3.29 and 1.53; 1.12-2.09; 60-82 years: 2.04; 1.71-2.43, 1.17; 0.90-1.51 and 1.09; 0.94-1.28). Compared to individuals with diagnosed diabetes, costs were significantly lower among individuals with impaired glucose regulation across all age and sex strata, also when antihyperglycemic medication was excluded (40-59 years: 0.60; 0.36-0.98, 60-82 years: 0.74; 0.60-0.90; men: 0.72; 0.56-0.93; women: 0.72; 0.54-0.96). Conclusions: We could quantify age- and sex-specific medication costs and cost ratios in individuals with diagnosed diabetes, undetected diabetes and impaired glucose regulation compared to those with normal glucose values, using data of a population-based sample, with oral glucose tolerance test-based identification of diabetes states. These results may help to validly estimate cost-effectiveness of screening and early treatment or prevention of diabetes. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York ISSN 0947-7349.


PubMed | German Diabetes Center at the Heinrich Heine University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Diabetes care | Year: 2011

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of -lipoic acid (ALA) over 4 years in mild-to-moderate diabetic distal symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a multicenter randomized double-blind parallel-group trial, 460 diabetic patients with mild-to-moderate DSPN were randomly assigned to oral treatment with 600 mg ALA once daily (n = 233) or placebo (n = 227) for 4 years. Primary end point was a composite score (Neuropathy Impairment Score [NIS]-Lower Limbs [NIS-LL] and seven neurophysiologic tests). Secondary outcome measures included NIS, NIS-LL, nerve conduction, and quantitative sensory tests (QSTs).Change in primary end point from baseline to 4 years showed no significant difference between treatment groups (P = 0.105). Change from baseline was significantly better with ALA than placebo for NIS (P = 0.028), NIS-LL (P = 0.05), and NIS-LL muscular weakness subscore (P = 0.045). More patients showed a clinically meaningful improvement and fewer showed progression of NIS (P = 0.013) and NIS-LL (P = 0.025) with ALA than with placebo. Nerve conduction and QST results did not significantly worsen with placebo. Global assessment of treatment tolerability and discontinuations due to lack of tolerability did not differ between the groups. The rates of serious adverse events were higher on ALA (38.1%) than on placebo (28.0%).Four-year treatment with ALA in mild-to-moderate DSPN did not influence the primary composite end point but resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement and prevention of progression of neuropathic impairments and was well tolerated. Because the primary composite end point did not deteriorate significantly in placebo-treated subjects, secondary prevention of its progression by ALA according to the trial design was not feasible.


PubMed | German Diabetes Center at the Heinrich Heine University
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association | Year: 2013

To estimate medication costs in individuals with diagnosed diabetes, undetected diabetes, impaired glucose regulation and normal blood glucose values in a population-based sample by age and sex.Using the KORA F4 follow-up survey, conducted in 2006-2008 (n=2611, age 40-82 years), we identified individuals glucose tolerance status by means of an oral glucose tolerance test. We assessed all medications taken regularly, calculated age-sex specific medication costs and estimated cost ratios for total, total without antihyperglycemic drugs, and cardiovascular medication, using multiple 2-part regression models.Compared to individuals with normal glucose values, costs were increased in known diabetes, undetected diabetes and impaired glucose regulation, which was more pronounced in participants aged 40-59 years than in those aged 60-82 years (cost ratios for all medications: 40-59 years: 2.85; 95%-confidence interval: 1.78-4.54, 2.00; 1.22-3.29 and 1.53; 1.12-2.09; 60-82 years: 2.04; 1.71-2.43, 1.17; 0.90-1.51 and 1.09; 0.94-1.28). Compared to individuals with diagnosed diabetes, costs were significantly lower among individuals with impaired glucose regulation across all age and sex strata, also when antihyperglycemic medication was excluded (40-59 years: 0.60; 0.36-0.98, 60-82 years: 0.74; 0.60-0.90; men: 0.72; 0.56-0.93; women: 0.72; 0.54-0.96).We could quantify age- and sex-specific medication costs and cost ratios in individuals with diagnosed diabetes, undetected diabetes and impaired glucose regulation compared to those with normal glucose values, using data of a population-based sample, with oral glucose tolerance test-based identification of diabetes states. These results may help to validly estimate cost-effectiveness of screening and early treatment or prevention of diabetes.

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