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Koch S.,German Development Institute Die
Development Policy Review | Year: 2015

Aid to middle-income countries has become one of the most discussed issues among development researchers and in the current modernisation of the development policy of the European Union. This article argues that the question needs to be dealt with in the context of two interlinked challenges: (i) the need to reconceptualise dominant approaches to global poverty reduction beyond national income, and (ii) the growing range of global challenges and the strategically important role of middle-income countries. For EU development policy, the implications are twofold: (i) a better-co-ordinated cross-country division of labour, and (ii) a diversification of objectives towards a global rationale of development policy involving closer co-ordination with other EU external policies. © 2015 The Author. Source


Ifejika Speranza C.,University of Bern | Ifejika Speranza C.,German Development Institute Die
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2013

Building resilience to climate change in agricultural production can ensure the functioning of agricultural-based livelihoods and reduce their vulnerability to climate change impacts. This paper thus explores how buffer capacity, a characteristic feature of resilience, can be conceptualised and used for assessing the resilience of smallholder agriculture to climate change. It uses the case of conservation agriculture farmers in a Kenyan region and examines how their practices contribute to buffer capacity. Surveys were used to collect data from 41 purposely selected conservation agriculture farmers in the Laikipia region of Kenya. Besides descriptive statistics, factor analysis was used to identify the key dimensions that characterise buffer capacity in the study context. The cluster of practices characterising buffer capacity in conservation agriculture include soil protection, adapted crops, intensification/irrigation, mechanisation and livelihood diversification. Various conservation practices increase buffer capacity, evaluated by farmers in economic, social, ecological and other dimensions. Through conservation agriculture, most farmers improved their productivity and incomes despite drought, improved their environment and social relations. Better-off farmers also reduced their need for labour, but this resulted in lesser income-earning opportunities for the poorer farmers, thus reducing the buffer capacity and resilience of the latter. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Bodas Freitas I.M.,Grenoble Graduate School of Business | Bodas Freitas I.M.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Dantas E.,German Development Institute Die | Dantas E.,University of Sussex | Iizuka M.,Maastricht University
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

This paper examines whether the Kyoto mechanisms have stimulated the diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the BRICS, i.e. Brazil, Russian, India China and South Africa. We examine the patterns of diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the BRICS, the factors associated with their diffusion, and the incentives provided by the Kyoto mechanisms. Preliminary analysis suggests that the Kyoto mechanisms may be supporting the spread of existing technologies, regardless if such technologies are still closely tied to environmental un-sustainability, rather than the development and diffusion of more sustainable variants of renewable energy technologies. This raises questions about the incentives provided by the Kyoto mechanisms for the diffusion of cleaner variants of renewable energy technologies in the absence of indigenous technological efforts and capabilities in sustainable variants, and national policy initiatives to attract and build on Kyoto mechanism projects. We provide an empirical analysis using aggregated national data from the World Development Indicators, the International Energy Agency, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and secondary sources. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Herrfahrdt-Pahle E.,German Development Institute Die | Pahl-Wostl C.,University of Osnabruck
Ecology and Society | Year: 2012

In recent years recurring political, economic, and environmental crises require questioning and re-evaluating dominant pathways of human development. However, political and economic frameworks seem to encompass deeply rooted resistance to fundamental changes (e.g., global financial crisis, climate change negotiations). In an effort to repair the system as fast as possible, those paradigms, mechanisms, and structures that led into the crisis are perpetuated. Instead of preserving conventional patterns and focusing on continuity, crises could be used as an opportunity for learning, adapting, and entering onto more sustainable pathways. However, there are different ways not only of arguing for sustainable pathways of development but also of conceptualizing continuity and change. By focusing on institutions, we illustrate the tension between the concepts of continuity and change, how they interact, and how they build or degrade institutional resilience. The analysis draws on empirical research in South Africa and Uzbekistan, which were locked in persistent regimes over decades. Faced with the challenge to transform, Uzbekistan chose a pathway of institutional continuity, while South Africa opted for comprehensive reforms and a high level of change. Based on these case studies, we illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of institutional continuity and change. Elements of institutional continuity during times of transformation include preserving key institutions, which define how the rules are made; maintaining social memory; providing transparency of reform processes and allowing them time to take effect. Elements of institutional change required during phases of consolidation include flexible legislation; regular reviews; and adaptation of legislation during and after implementation. © 2012 by the author(s). Source


Richerzhagen C.,German Development Institute Die
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2011

Access and benefit-sharing (ABS) is a market-based approach aimed at preserving biodiversity. Its effectiveness has been questioned in international discussions for many years. It is evident that the approach's success has fallen far short of what was expected: degradation of biodiversity continues, and only few benefits arising from the commercial use of biodiversity have been shared with the providers of biodiversity. The reason for this failure is a lack of incentives. However, an analytical assessment of the effectiveness of the concept is lacking so far. The present paper raises the question how ABS must be designed in order to be effective while also helping to protect biodiversity and promote a fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from its commercialization. This paper identifies six critical factors that determine the effectiveness of ABS governance and discusses under what circumstances a critical factor increases or decreases in effectiveness. Furthermore, the paper analyses so-called countermeasures that impact on these circumstances. In specifying the critical factors and their interplay with the countermeasures, the paper gives guidance on how to develop more effective ABS regimes. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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