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Kaiser S.S.M.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | Kaiser S.S.M.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research
Crustaceana | Year: 2015

Based on benthic material collected during the BIOPEARL (Biodiversity, Phylogeny, Evolution and Adaptive Radiation of Life in Antarctica) II expedition on board RRS &James Clark Ross" a new nannoniscid species, Regabellator brixorum sp. n., is described from the Pine Island Bay continental shelf, western Amundsen Sea (Antarctica). The new species most closely resembles Regabellator armatus (Hansen, 1916) but can be distinguished from this species by possessing ventral spines on pereonites 1-4, the shape of the cephalothorax anterior margin and the length of the pereonite 7 ventral spine. The genus Regabellator has been previously recorded from the North and Southeastern Atlantic and here exclusively from the deep sea (1946 m and below). The new species represents the first record of the genus Regabellator from the Antarctic continental shelf and thus greatly extends hitherto known latitudinal and bathymetric ranges for this genus. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2015.


Schade F.M.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Raupach M.J.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research | Mathias Wegner K.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research
Journal of Sea Research | Year: 2016

Marine environmental conditions are naturally changing throughout the year, affecting life cycles of hosts as well as parasites. In particular, water temperature is positively correlated with the development of many parasites and pathogenic bacteria, increasing the risk of infection and diseases during summer. Interannual temperature fluctuations are likely to alter host-parasite interactions, which may result in profound impacts on sensitive ecosystems. In this context we investigated the parasite and bacterial Vibrionaceae communities of four common small fish species (three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, Atlantic herring Clupea harengus, European sprat Sprattus sprattus and lesser sand eel Ammodytes tobianus) in the Northern Wadden Sea over a period of two years.Overall, we found significantly increased relative diversities of infectious species at higher temperature differentials. On the taxon-specific level some macroparasite species (trematodes, nematodes) showed a shift in infection peaks that followed the water temperatures of preceding months, whereas other parasite groups showed no effects of temperature differentials on infection parameters. Our results show that even subtle changes in seasonal temperatures may shift and modify the phenology of parasites as well as opportunistic pathogens that can have far reaching consequences for sensitive ecosystems. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Schrodl M.,Bavarian State collection of Zoology ZSM | Bohn J.M.,Bavarian State collection of Zoology ZSM | Brenke N.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research | Rolan E.,Campus Universitario Sur | Schwabe E.,Bavarian State collection of Zoology ZSM
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2011

Mollusca are widely used for deriving concepts on deep-sea biology and biodiversity, yet abyssal collections are limited to only a few regions of the world ocean and biased toward the northern Atlantic. The present study compares gastropod molluscs sampled along a transect through the southern Atlantic from the equator to Antarctica. The DIVA I and II expeditions concentrated on the hardly explored Guinea, Angola, and Cape Basins. Of the 145 deep-sea deployments (5025-5656m depth) analyzed to date, 20 have yielded 68 specimens of benthic gastropods, representing 27 species. Only five abyssal species were previously known, four of them from the northern Atlantic deep sea; the remainder appear to be undescribed. Interestingly, there is no faunal overlap with the nearby Antarctic deep-sea. Most of these DIVA species (63%) are represented by single individuals, or limited to one or two stations. The rarity (i.e. 0.55 specimens m-2 calculated from quantitative corers) and still undetectable patchiness of southeastern Atlantic abyssal gastropods may indicate "source-sink" dynamics, but comparison is needed with thus far hardly explored regional bathyal faunas. The BRENKE-epibenthic sledge (EBS) may be efficient at surveying the abyssal gastropod species richness, but is shown to drastically underestimate true abundances. Low diversity values throughout the three southern Atlantic ocean basins do further challenge earlier estimates of a hyperdiverse global abyssal macrofauna. Comparative EBS data available from the southern hemisphere indicate a gradient from the equatorial Guinea Basin towards higher gastropod abundances and diversity in Antarctica. This is in clear contrast to the paradigm of a globally strongly decreasing marine diversity from lower to higher latitudes, highlighting the importance of further exploring the southern fauna from the tropics to Antarctica. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Gollner S.,University of Vienna | Gollner S.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research | Gollner S.,Netherlands Institute for Sea Research | Govenar B.,Rhode Island College | And 2 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2015

Species with markedly different sizes interact when sharing the same habitat. Unravelling mechanisms that control diversity thus requires consideration of a range of size classes. We compared patterns of diversity and community structure for meio- and macrofaunal communities sampled along a gradient of environmental stress at deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise (9° 50' N) and neighboring basalt habitats. Both meio- and macrofaunal species richnesses were lowest in the high-stress vent habitat, but macrofaunal richness was highest among intermediate-stress vent habitats. Meiofaunal species richness was negatively correlated with stress, and highest on the basalt. In these deep-sea basalt habitats surrounding hydrothermal vents, meiofaunal species richness was consistently higher than that of macrofauna. Consideration of the physiological capabilities and life history traits of different-sized animals suggests that different patterns of diversity may be caused by different capabilities to deal with environmental stress in the 2 size classes. In contrast to meiofauna, adaptations of macrofauna may have evolved to allow them to maintain their physiological homeostasis in a variety of hydrothermal vent habitats and exploit this food-rich deep-sea environment in high abundances. The habitat fidelity patterns also differed: macrofaunal species occurred primarily at vents and were generally restricted to this habitat, but meiofaunal species were distributed more evenly across proximate and distant basalt habitats and were thus not restricted to vent habitats. Over evolutionary time scales these contrasting patterns are likely driven by distinct reproduction strategies and food demands inherent to fauna of different sizes. © The authors 2015.


Riehl T.,University of Hamburg | Riehl T.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research | Kaiser S.,University of Hamburg
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, is amongst the most rapidly changing environments of the world. Its benthic inhabitants are barely known and the BIOPEARL 2 project was one of the first to biologically explore this region. Collected during this expedition, Macrostylis roaldi sp. nov. is described as the first isopod discovered on the Amundsen-Sea shelf. Amongst many characteristic features, the most obvious characters unique for M. roaldi are the rather short pleotelson and short operculum as well as the trapezoid shape of the pleotelson in adult males. We used DNA barcodes (COI) and additional mitochondrial markers (12S, 16S) to reciprocally illuminate morphological results and nucleotide variability. In contrast to many other deep-sea isopods, this species is common and shows a wide distribution. Its range spreads from Pine Island Bay at inner shelf right to the shelf break and across 1,000 m bathymetrically. Its gene pool is homogenized across space and depth. This is indicative for a genetic bottleneck or a recent colonization history. Our results suggest further that migratory or dispersal capabilities of some species of brooding macrobenthos have been underestimated. This might be relevant for the species' potential to cope with effects of climate change. To determine where this species could have survived the last glacial period, alternative refuge possibilities are discussed. © 2012 Riehl, Kaiser.


Kaiser S.,University of Southampton | Kaiser S.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

Macrofaunal collections obtained during the French-German BIONOD expedition to the Clarion Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ), equatorial NE Pacific, in spring 2012 yielded two new nannoniscid species, Hebefustis juansenii sp. n. and H. vecino sp. n., which are described in the current paper. The number and position of posterolateral spines of the pleo-telson distinguishes the two new species from all other species in the genus. Both species are similar to each other differ, though, in the length of maxilliped epipodite, the presence of a robust spine on pereonite 2 (in H. juansenii sp. n.) as well as the shape of pereonite 4 anterior margin. They also resemble H. primitivus Menzies, 1962 but can be differentiated from the latter by the shape of lateral margins of pereonites 1-4 and the setation and shape of male pleopod 1. A distribution map and a taxonomic key to all known species in the genus are provided, as well as a checklist of known nannoniscid species from the Pacific is presented. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press.


Ivanenko V.N.,Moscow State University | Arbizu P.M.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research
Marine Biodiversity | Year: 2016

Adult females of Bathygordion cliffus new gen. and new sp. belonging to the family Ecbathyriontidae Humes, 1987 are described from the Gorda Ridge of the North Pacific Ocean. The copepods were found at depth of 2701 m on the margin of a hydrothermal vent field (Sea Cliff, GR-14) among invertebrates colonizing wood blocks deployed for 2 years. The new genus differs from the only monotypic genus Ecbathyrion Humes, 1987 reported from hydrothermal vents of the Galapagos Rift and the East Pacific Rise in a number of morphological features (such as three articulating abdominal somites, mandible with 1 palp bearing setae, base of leg 1 with inner seta, distal exopodal segment of leg 4 with four inner setae, leg 5 2-segmented), suggesting long evolutionary history of the deep-sea family endemic to hydrothermal vents of the East Pacific. The derived feature of the new genus is the presence of one terminal spine on the distal endopodal segment of leg 3 (instead of bearing two terminal setae in Ecbathyrion). The diagnosis of the family Ecbathyriontidae is emended. © 2016 Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Schmidt C.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research | Martinez Arbizu P.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2015

We studied meiofauna standing stocks and community structure in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plains in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In general, the Nematoda were dominant (93%) followed by the Copepoda (4%). Nematode abundances ranged from 87% to 96%; those of copepods from 2% to 7%. The most diverse deployment yielded 17 taxa: Acari, Amphipoda, Annelida, Bivalvia, Coelenterata, Copepoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Isopoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Priapulida, Tanaidacea, Tantulocarida, and Tardigrada. Nauplii were also present. Generally, the trench slope and the southernmost deployments had the highest abundances (850-1392individuals/cm2). The results of non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that these deployments were similar to each other in meiofauna community structure. The southernmost deployments were located in a zone of higher particulate organic carbon (POC) flux (g Corgm-2yr-1), whereas the trench slope should have low POC flux due to depth attenuation. Also, POC and abundance were significantly correlated in the abyssal plains. This correlation may explain the higher abundances at the southernmost deployments. Lateral transport was also assumed to explain high meiofauna abundances on the trench slope. Abundances were generally higher than expected from model results. ANOSIM revealed significant differences between the trench slope and the northern abyssal plains, between the central abyssal plains and the trench slope, between the trench slope and the southern abyssal plains, between the central and the southern abyssal plains, and between the central and northern deployments. The northern and southern abyssal plains did not differ significantly. In addition, a U-test revealed highly significant differences between the trench-slope and abyssal deployments. The taxa inhabited mostly the upper 0-3cm of the sediment layer (Nematoda 80-90%; Copepoda 88-100%). The trench-slope and abyssal did not differ in occupancy of the top layer. Furthermore, sediment depth and abundance were strongly correlated, but the sediment texture itself and the grain sizes showed only slight correlations with abundance. In the trench slope no correlation between sediment texture and abundance was found. We suggest that sediment is not the only factor that affects meiofauna abundance in the study area. The results of our study were compared with other trench and nontrench studies, and in most cases, the abundance decreases with depth initially but increases again below a certain depth, especially in deep-sea trenches below productive waters. No generalization can be made, however, about the depth at which the reversal occurs; it depends on the area of investigation and on a mixture of many other factors (e.g., sediment heterogeneity, oxygen, redox potential, proximity to land masses, and season). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Bottger-Schnack R.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research | Schnack D.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2015

The current state of development of an interactive electronic identification key for females of the marine pelagic microcopepod family Oncaeidae is presented. To date, 112 species have been described, allocated to seven genera (Archioncaea, Conaea, Epicalymma, Monothula, Oncaeas.str., Spinoncaea, and Triconia) and 16 species groups within the speciose paraphyletic taxon Oncaea s.l. Only two species of Oncaea s.l. show an uncertain group status. Of all described oncaeids, seven species are not yet included in the key due to inadequacies in morphological description and/or lack of type material for re-examination. In addition, seven morphologically distinct species and two new species groups are considered that have not yet been formally described. The key uses easily distinguishable morphological characters as far as possible (e.g. body size, proportional lengths of urosomites, length of P5 exopod) and includes more difficult characters (e.g. spine counts on swimming legs, proportional spine lengths) where required for unequivocal identification. The characters used in the key allow the identification of genera and species groups by investigators with limited taxonomic experience; species separation in most cases requires some advanced dissection skills. Potential identification problems caused by difficulties discerning minute morphological features or intraspecific morphometric variability are discussed. The present version of the identification key still requires complementary illustrations of character states and inclusion of fact sheets summarizing the characteristics of each species with notes on taxonomic uncertainties and links to databases providing zoogeographical and genetic information. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Barco A.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Barco A.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research | Raupach M.J.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research | Laakmann S.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2016

Sequence-based specimen identification, known as DNA barcoding, is a common method complementing traditional morphology-based taxonomic assignments. The fundamental resource in DNA barcoding is the availability of a taxonomically reliable sequence database to use as a reference for sequence comparisons. Here, we provide a reference library including 579 sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I for 113 North Sea mollusc species. We tested the efficacy of this library by simulating a sequence-based specimen identification scenario using Best Match, Best Close Match (BCM) and All Species Barcode (ASB) criteria with three different threshold values. Each identification result was compared with our prior morphology-based taxonomic assignments. Our simulation resulted in 87.7% congruent identifications (93.8% when excluding singletons). The highest number of congruent identifications was obtained with BCM and ASB and a 0.05 threshold. We also compared identifications with genetic clustering (Barcode Index Numbers, BINs) computed by the Barcode of Life Datasystem (BOLD). About 68% of our morphological identifications were congruent with BINs created by BOLD. Forty-nine sequences were clustered in 16 discordant BINs, and these were divided in two classes: sequences from different species clustered in a single BIN and conspecific sequences divided in more BINs. Whereas former incongruences were probably caused by BOLD entries in need of a taxonomic update, the latter incongruences regarded taxa requiring further investigations. These include species with amphi-Atlantic distribution, whose genetic structure should be evaluated over their entire range to produce a reliable sequence-based identification system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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