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Riehl T.,University of Hamburg | Riehl T.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research | Kaiser S.,University of Hamburg
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, is amongst the most rapidly changing environments of the world. Its benthic inhabitants are barely known and the BIOPEARL 2 project was one of the first to biologically explore this region. Collected during this expedition, Macrostylis roaldi sp. nov. is described as the first isopod discovered on the Amundsen-Sea shelf. Amongst many characteristic features, the most obvious characters unique for M. roaldi are the rather short pleotelson and short operculum as well as the trapezoid shape of the pleotelson in adult males. We used DNA barcodes (COI) and additional mitochondrial markers (12S, 16S) to reciprocally illuminate morphological results and nucleotide variability. In contrast to many other deep-sea isopods, this species is common and shows a wide distribution. Its range spreads from Pine Island Bay at inner shelf right to the shelf break and across 1,000 m bathymetrically. Its gene pool is homogenized across space and depth. This is indicative for a genetic bottleneck or a recent colonization history. Our results suggest further that migratory or dispersal capabilities of some species of brooding macrobenthos have been underestimated. This might be relevant for the species' potential to cope with effects of climate change. To determine where this species could have survived the last glacial period, alternative refuge possibilities are discussed. © 2012 Riehl, Kaiser. Source

Schrodl M.,Bavarian State Collection of Zoology ZSM | Bohn J.M.,Bavarian State Collection of Zoology ZSM | Brenke N.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research | Rolan E.,Campus Universitario sur | Schwabe E.,Bavarian State Collection of Zoology ZSM
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2011

Mollusca are widely used for deriving concepts on deep-sea biology and biodiversity, yet abyssal collections are limited to only a few regions of the world ocean and biased toward the northern Atlantic. The present study compares gastropod molluscs sampled along a transect through the southern Atlantic from the equator to Antarctica. The DIVA I and II expeditions concentrated on the hardly explored Guinea, Angola, and Cape Basins. Of the 145 deep-sea deployments (5025-5656m depth) analyzed to date, 20 have yielded 68 specimens of benthic gastropods, representing 27 species. Only five abyssal species were previously known, four of them from the northern Atlantic deep sea; the remainder appear to be undescribed. Interestingly, there is no faunal overlap with the nearby Antarctic deep-sea. Most of these DIVA species (63%) are represented by single individuals, or limited to one or two stations. The rarity (i.e. 0.55 specimens m-2 calculated from quantitative corers) and still undetectable patchiness of southeastern Atlantic abyssal gastropods may indicate "source-sink" dynamics, but comparison is needed with thus far hardly explored regional bathyal faunas. The BRENKE-epibenthic sledge (EBS) may be efficient at surveying the abyssal gastropod species richness, but is shown to drastically underestimate true abundances. Low diversity values throughout the three southern Atlantic ocean basins do further challenge earlier estimates of a hyperdiverse global abyssal macrofauna. Comparative EBS data available from the southern hemisphere indicate a gradient from the equatorial Guinea Basin towards higher gastropod abundances and diversity in Antarctica. This is in clear contrast to the paradigm of a globally strongly decreasing marine diversity from lower to higher latitudes, highlighting the importance of further exploring the southern fauna from the tropics to Antarctica. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kaiser S.S.M.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | Kaiser S.S.M.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research
Crustaceana | Year: 2015

Based on benthic material collected during the BIOPEARL (Biodiversity, Phylogeny, Evolution and Adaptive Radiation of Life in Antarctica) II expedition on board RRS &James Clark Ross" a new nannoniscid species, Regabellator brixorum sp. n., is described from the Pine Island Bay continental shelf, western Amundsen Sea (Antarctica). The new species most closely resembles Regabellator armatus (Hansen, 1916) but can be distinguished from this species by possessing ventral spines on pereonites 1-4, the shape of the cephalothorax anterior margin and the length of the pereonite 7 ventral spine. The genus Regabellator has been previously recorded from the North and Southeastern Atlantic and here exclusively from the deep sea (1946 m and below). The new species represents the first record of the genus Regabellator from the Antarctic continental shelf and thus greatly extends hitherto known latitudinal and bathymetric ranges for this genus. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2015. Source

Bottger-Schnack R.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research | Schnack D.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2015

The current state of development of an interactive electronic identification key for females of the marine pelagic microcopepod family Oncaeidae is presented. To date, 112 species have been described, allocated to seven genera (Archioncaea, Conaea, Epicalymma, Monothula, Oncaeas.str., Spinoncaea, and Triconia) and 16 species groups within the speciose paraphyletic taxon Oncaea s.l. Only two species of Oncaea s.l. show an uncertain group status. Of all described oncaeids, seven species are not yet included in the key due to inadequacies in morphological description and/or lack of type material for re-examination. In addition, seven morphologically distinct species and two new species groups are considered that have not yet been formally described. The key uses easily distinguishable morphological characters as far as possible (e.g. body size, proportional lengths of urosomites, length of P5 exopod) and includes more difficult characters (e.g. spine counts on swimming legs, proportional spine lengths) where required for unequivocal identification. The characters used in the key allow the identification of genera and species groups by investigators with limited taxonomic experience; species separation in most cases requires some advanced dissection skills. Potential identification problems caused by difficulties discerning minute morphological features or intraspecific morphometric variability are discussed. The present version of the identification key still requires complementary illustrations of character states and inclusion of fact sheets summarizing the characteristics of each species with notes on taxonomic uncertainties and links to databases providing zoogeographical and genetic information. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Raupach M.J.,Senckenberg Institute | Knebelsberger T.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research
Biologie in Unserer Zeit | Year: 2015

Taxonomy is currently experiencing profound changes. Molecular methods as DNA barcoding have become inherent parts of modern taxonomic research. The uprising application of high-throughput technologies will help us to assess species diversity faster and to understand the characteristics of an organism more in detail. As consequence, a modern taxonomic science with integrative character is emerging. Furthermore, the beginning digitalization and cross-linking of taxonomic data will pave the way of an upcoming dynamic cybertaxonomy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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