German Cancer Consortium

Heidelberg, Germany

German Cancer Consortium

Heidelberg, Germany
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PubMed | Breast Unit, Praxisklinik Krebsheilkunde fur Frauen Brustzentrum, Hamatoonkologische Schwerpunktpraxis, Charité - Medical University of Berlin and 9 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncotarget | Year: 2016

TP53 mutations are frequent in breast cancer, however their clinical relevance in terms of response to chemotherapy is controversial.450 pre-therapeutic, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded core biopsies from the phase II neoadjuvant GeparSixto trial that included HER2-positive and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) were subjected to Sanger sequencing of exons 5-8 of the TP53 gene. TP53 status was correlated to response to neoadjuvant anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy with or without carboplatin and trastuzumab/lapatinib in HER2-positive and bevacizumab in TNBC. p53 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in the TNBC subgroup.Of 450 breast cancer samples 297 (66.0%) were TP53 mutant. Mutations were significantly more frequent in TNBC (74.8%) compared to HER2-positive cancers (55.4%, P < 0.0001). Neither mutations nor different mutation types and effects were associated with pCR neither in the whole study group nor in molecular subtypes (P > 0.05 each). Missense mutations tended to be associated with a better survival compared to all other types of mutations in TNBC (P = 0.093) and in HER2-positive cancers (P = 0.071). In TNBC, missense mutations were also linked to higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs, P = 0.028). p53 protein overexpression was also linked with imporved survival (P = 0.019).Our study confirms high TP53 mutation rates in TNBC and HER2-positive breast cancer. Mutations did not predict the response to an intense neoadjuvant chemotherapy in these two molecular breast cancer subtypes.

Hyman D.M.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Puzanov I.,Vanderbilt University | Subbiah V.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Faris J.E.,Massachusetts General Hospital | And 19 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND BRAF V600 mutations occur in various nonmelanoma cancers. We undertook a histology-independent phase 2 "basket" study of vemurafenib in BRAF V600 mutation- positive nonmelanoma cancers. METHODS We enrolled patients in six prespecified cancer cohorts; patients with all other tumor types were enrolled in a seventh cohort. A total of 122 patients with BRAF V600 mutation-positive cancer were treated, including 27 patients with colorectal cancer who received vemurafenib and cetuximab. The primary end point was the response rate; secondary end points included progression-free and overall survival. RESULTS In the cohort with non-small-cell lung cancer, the response rate was 42% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20 to 67) and median progression-free survival was 7.3 months (95% CI, 3.5 to 10.8). In the cohort with Erdheim-Chester disease or Langerhans'-cell histiocytosis, the response rate was 43% (95% CI, 18 to 71); the median treatment duration was 5.9 months (range, 0.6 to 18.6), and no patients had disease progression during therapy. There were anecdotal responses among patients with pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, anaplastic thyroid cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, salivary-duct cancer, ovarian cancer, and clear-cell sarcoma and among patients with colorectal cancer who received vemurafenib and cetuximab. Safety was similar to that in prior studies of vemurafenib for melanoma. CONCLUSIONS BRAF V600 appears to be a targetable oncogene in some, but not all, nonmelanoma cancers. Preliminary vemurafenib activity was observed in non-small-cell lung cancer and in Erdheim-Chester disease and Langerhans'-cell histiocytosis. The histologic context is an important determinant of response in BRAF V600-mutated cancers. Copyright © 2015 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Shaw A.T.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Kim D.-W.,Seoul National University | Mehra R.,Fox Chase Cancer Center | Tan D.S.W.,Genome Institute of Singapore | And 18 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) rearrangement is sensitive to the ALK inhibitor crizotinib, but resistance invariably develops. Ceritinib (LDK378) is a new ALK inhibitor that has shown greater antitumor potency than crizotinib in preclinical studies. METHODS: In this phase 1 study, we administered oral ceritinib in doses of 50 to 750 mg once daily to patients with advanced cancers harboring genetic alterations in ALK. In an expansion phase of the study, patients received the maximum tolerated dose. Patients were assessed to determine the safety, pharmacokinetic properties, and antitumor activity of ceritinib. Tumor biopsies were performed before ceritinib treatment to identify resistance mutations in ALK in a group of patients with NSCLC who had had disease progression during treatment with crizotinib. RESULTS: A total of 59 patients were enrolled in the dose-escalation phase. The maximum tolerated dose of ceritinib was 750 mg once daily; dose-limiting toxic events included diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, elevated aminotransferase levels, and hypophosphatemia. This phase was followed by an expansion phase, in which an additional 71 patients were treated, for a total of 130 patients overall. Among 114 patients with NSCLC who received at least 400 mg of ceritinib per day, the overall response rate was 58% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48 to 67). Among 80 patients who had received crizotinib previously, the response rate was 56% (95% CI, 45 to 67). Responses were observed in patients with various resistance mutations in ALK and in patients without detectable mutations. Among patients with NSCLC who received at least 400 mg of ceritinib per day, the median progression-free survival was 7.0 months (95% CI, 5.6 to 9.5). CONCLUSIONS: Ceritinib was highly active in patients with advanced, ALK-rearranged NSCLC, including those who had had disease progression during crizotinib treatment, regardless of the presence of resistance mutations in ALK. Copyright © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Brenner H.,German Cancer Consortium | Stock C.,University of Heidelberg | Hoffmeister M.,German Cancer Research Center
BMJ (Online) | Year: 2014

Objectives To review, summarise, and compare the evidence for effectiveness of screening sigmoidoscopy and screening colonoscopy in the prevention of colorectal cancer occurrence and deaths. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Data sources PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Two investigators independently extracted characteristics and results of identified studies and performed standardised quality ratings. Eligibility criteria Randomised controlled trials and observational studies in English on the impact of screening sigmoidoscopy and screening colonoscopy on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in the general population at average risk. Results For screening sigmoidoscopy, four randomised controlled trials and 10 observational studies were identified that consistently found a major reduction in distal but not proximal colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. Summary estimates of reduction in distal colorectal cancer incidence and mortality were 31% (95% confidence intervals 26% to 37%) and 46% (33% to 57%) in intention to screen analysis, 42% (29% to 53%) and 61% (27% to 79%) in per protocol analysis of randomised controlled trials, and 64% (50% to 74%) and 66% (38% to 81%) in observational studies. For screening colonoscopy, evidence was restricted to six observational studies, the results of which suggest tentatively an even stronger reduction in distal colorectal cancer incidence and mortality, along with a significant reduction in mortality from cancer of the proximal colon. Indirect comparisons of results of observational studies on screening sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy suggest a 40% to 60% lower risk of incident colorectal cancer and death from colorectal cancer after screening colonoscopy even though this incremental risk reduction was statistically significant for deaths from cancer of the proximal colon only. Conclusions Compelling and consistent evidence from randomised controlled trials and observational studies suggests that screening sigmoidoscopy and screening colonoscopy prevent most deaths from distal colorectal cancer. Observational studies suggest that colonoscopy compared with flexible sigmoidoscopy decreases mortality from cancer of the proximal colon. This added value should be examined in further research and weighed against the higher costs, discomfort, complication rates, capacities needed, and possible differences in compliance.

PubMed | University of Michigan, Sun Yat Sen University, Medical University of Graz, German Cancer Consortium and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2017

Loss of tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) activates -catenin to initiate colorectal tumorigenesis. However, -catenin (CTNNB1) activating mutations rarely occur in human colorectal cancer (CRC). We found that APC loss also results in up-regulation of IL-6 signal transducer (IL-6ST/gp130), thereby activating Src family kinases (SFKs), YAP, and STAT3, which are simultaneously up-regulated in the majority of human CRC. Although, initial YAP activation, which stimulates IL6ST gene transcription, may be caused by reduced serine phosphorylation, sustained YAP activation depends on tyrosine phosphorylation by SFKs, whose inhibition, along with STAT3-activating JAK kinases, causes regression of established colorectal tumors. These results explain why APC loss is a more potent initiating event than the mere activation of CTNNB1.

PubMed | German Cancer Research Center, TU Munich, University of Cologne, University of Heidelberg and German Cancer Consortium
Type: | Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research | Year: 2016

Altered FGFR1 signaling has emerged as a therapeutic target in epithelial malignancies. In contrast, the role of FGFR1 in soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) has not been established. Prompted by the detection and subsequent therapeutic inhibition of amplified FGFR1 in a patient with metastatic leiomyosarcoma, we investigated the oncogenic properties of FGFR1 and its potential as a drug target in patients with STS.The frequency of FGFR1 amplification and overexpression, as assessed by FISH, microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization and mRNA expression profiling, SNP array profiling, and RNA sequencing, was determined in three patient cohorts. The sensitivity of STS cell lines with or without FGFR1 alterations to genetic and pharmacologic FGFR1 inhibition and the signaling pathways engaged by FGFR1 were investigated using viability assays, colony formation assays, and biochemical analysis.Increased FGFR1 copy number was detected in 74 of 190 (38.9%; cohort 1), 13 of 79 (16.5%; cohort 2), and 80 of 254 (31.5%; cohort 3) patients. FGFR1 overexpression occurred in 16 of 79 (20.2%, cohort 2) and 39 of 254 (15.4%; cohort 3) patients. Targeting of FGFR1 by RNA interference and small-molecule inhibitors (PD173074, AZD4547, BGJ398) revealed that the requirement for FGFR1 signaling in STS cells is dictated by FGFR1 expression levels, and identified the MAPK-ERK1/2 axis as critical FGFR1 effector pathway.These data identify FGFR1 as a driver gene in multiple STS subtypes and support FGFR1 inhibition, guided by patient selection according to the FGFR1 expression and monitoring of MAPK-ERK1/2 signaling, as a therapeutic option in this challenging group of diseases. Clin Cancer Res; 1-12. 2016 AACR.

Oellerich T.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Oellerich T.,German Cancer Research Center | Mohr S.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Corso J.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | And 17 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2015

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is driven by niche-derived and cell-autonomous stimuli. Although many cell-autonomous disease drivers are known, niche-dependent signaling in the context of the genetic disease heterogeneity has been difficult to investigate. Here, we analyzed the role of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) in AML. BTK was frequently expressed, and its inhibition strongly impaired the proliferation and survival of AML cells also in the presence of bone marrow stroma. By interactome analysis, (phospho)proteomics, and transcriptome sequencing, we characterized BTK signaling networks. We show that BTK-dependent signaling is highly context dependent. In Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD)-positive AML, BTK mediates FLT3-ITD-dependent Myc and STAT5 activation, and combined targeting of FLT3-ITD and BTK showed additive effects. In Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD)-negative AML, BTK couples Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) activation to nuclear factor κB and STAT5. Both BTK-dependent transcriptional programs were relevant for cell cycle progression and apoptosis regulation. Thus, we identify context-dependent oncogenic driver events that may guide subtype-specific treatment strategies and, for the first time, point to a role of TLR9 in AML. Clinical evaluation of BTK inhibitors in AML seems warranted. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

Wick W.,German Cancer Consortium | Weller M.,University of Zürich | Van Den Bent M.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Sanson M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 6 more authors.
Nature Reviews Neurology | Year: 2014

Many patients with malignant gliomas do not respond to alkylating agent chemotherapy. Alkylator resistance of glioma cells is mainly mediated by the DNA repair enzyme O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Epigenetic silencing of the MGMT gene by promoter methylation in glioma cells compromises this DNA repair mechanism and increases chemosensitivity. MGMT promoter methylation is, therefore, a strong prognostic biomarker in paediatric and adult patients with glioblastoma treated with temozolomide. Notably, elderly patients (>65-70 years) with glioblastoma whose tumours lack MGMT promoter methylation derive minimal benefit from such chemotherapy. Thus, MGMT promoter methylation status has become a frequently requested laboratory test in neuro-oncology. This Review presents current data on the prognostic and predictive relevance of MGMT testing, discusses clinical trials that have used MGMT status to select participants, evaluates known issues concerning the molecular testing procedure, and addresses the necessity for molecular-context-dependent interpretation of MGMT test results. Whether MGMT promoter methylation testing should be offered to all individuals with glioblastoma, or only to elderly patients and those in clinical trials, is also discussed. Justifications for withholding alkylating agent chemotherapy in patients with MGMT-unmethylated glioblastomas outside clinical trials, and the potential role for MGMT testing in other gliomas, are also discussed. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

PubMed | Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, New York University, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Indiana University and 11 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology | Year: 2015

Red meat intake has been associated with risk of colorectal cancer, potentially mediated through heterocyclic amines. The metabolic efficiency of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) required for the metabolic activation of such amines is influenced by genetic variation. The interaction between red meat intake, NAT2 genotype, and colorectal cancer has been inconsistently reported.We used pooled individual-level data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Red meat intake was collected by each study. We inferred NAT2 phenotype based on polymorphism at rs1495741, highly predictive of enzyme activity. Interaction was assessed using multiplicative interaction terms in multivariate-adjusted models.From 11 studies, 8,290 colorectal cancer cases and 9,115 controls were included. The highest quartile of red meat intake was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer compared with the lowest quartile [OR, 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29-1.55]. However, a significant association was observed only for studies with retrospective diet data, not for studies with diet prospectively assessed before cancer diagnosis. Combining all studies, high red meat intake was similarly associated with colorectal cancer in those with a rapid/intermediate NAT2 genotype (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.20-1.59) as with a slow genotype (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.28-1.61; P interaction = 0.9).We found that high red meat intake was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer only from retrospective case-control studies and not modified by NAT2 enzyme activity.Our results suggest no interaction between NAT2 genotype and red meat intake in mediating risk of colorectal cancer.

Baumgarten P.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Michaelis M.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Michaelis M.,University of Kent | Rothweiler F.,Goethe University Frankfurt | And 15 more authors.
Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: Experimental findings have suggested that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection of tumor cells may exert oncomodulatory effects that enhance tumor malignancy. However, controversial findings have been published on the presence of HCMV in malignant tumors. Here, we present the first study that systematically investigates HCMV infection in human nervous system tumors by highly sensitive immunohistochemistry in correlation with the HCMV serostatus of the patients. Methods: Immunohistochemical and quantitative PCR-based methods to detect different HCMV antigens and genomic HCMV DNA were optimized prior to the investigation of pathological samples. Moreover, the pathological results were matched with the HCMV serostatus of the patients. Results: HCMV immediate-early, late, and pp65 antigens could be detected in single cells from HCMV strain Hi91-infected UKF-NB-4 neuroblastoma cells after 1:1024 dilution with noninfected UKF-NB-4 cells. Genomic HCMV DNA could be detected in copy numbers as low as 430 copies/mL. However, we did not detect HCMV in tumors from a cohort of 123 glioblastoma, medulloblastoma, or neuroblastoma patients. Notably, we detected nonspecifically positive staining in tumor tissues of HCMV seropositive and seronegative glioblastoma patients. The HCMV serostatus of 67 glioblastoma patients matched the general epidemiological prevalence data for Western countries (72% of female and 57% of male glioblastoma patients were HCMV seropositive). Median survival was not significantly different in HCMV seropositive versus seronegative glioblastoma patients. Conclusions: The prevalence of HCMV-infected tumor cells may be much lower than previously reported based on highly sensitive detection methods. © The Author(s) 2014.

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