Andersen S.L.,Geriatrics |
Carle A.,Geriatrics |
Karmisholt J.,Geriatrics |
Pedersen I.B.,Geriatrics |
Andersen S.,University of Aalborg
European Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2017
Fetal programming is a long-standing, but still evolving, concept that links exposures during pregnancy to the later development of disease in the offspring. A fetal programming effect has been considered within different endocrine axes and in relation to different maternal endocrine diseases. In this critical review, we describe and discuss the hypothesis of fetal programming by maternal thyroid dysfunction in the context of fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Thyroid hormones are important regulators of early brain development, and evidence from experimental and observational human studies have demonstrated structural and functional abnormalities in the brain caused by the lack or excess of thyroid hormone during fetal brain development. The hypothesis that such abnormalities introduced during early fetal brain development increase susceptibility for the later onset of neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring is biologically plausible. However, epidemiological studies on the association between maternal thyroid dysfunction and long-Term child outcomes are observational in design, and are challenged by important methodological aspects. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology Printed in Great Britain.
Nordstrom P.,Geriatrics |
Toots A.,Geriatrics |
Gustafson Y.,Geriatrics |
Thorngren K.-G.,Lund University |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association | Year: 2017
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between bisphosphonate use and the risk of new fracture in a nationwide cohort of individuals with previous hip fractures, with emphasis on individuals above 80 years of age. Design, setting, and participants: From a nationwide cohort with hip fracture (2006-2012) (n = 93, 601), each individual prescribed bisphosphonates after hip fracture (n = 5845) was matched with up to three individuals not prescribed bisphosphonates, resulting in a cohort of 21,363 individuals. Main outcome measure: A new hip fracture. Results: During a mean follow-up period of 2.98 (range, 0.02-8) years, 4581 fractures occurred in the cohort. Before the initiation of bisphosphonate therapy, individuals later prescribed bisphosphonates had an increased risk of hip fracture (multivariable adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.23-3.24) compared with controls. In the period after bisphosphonate therapy initiation, individuals prescribed bisphosphonates had a lower risk of hip fracture (multivariable adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90) compared with controls. Similar effects were seen after the initiation of bisphosphonates in individuals aged more than 80 years (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62-0.99). In contrast, the initiation of bisphosphonate therapy did not influence the risk of injurious falls not resulting in fracture (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86-1.05). Conclusion: Bisphosphonate use was associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture in this nationwide cohort of older men and women, with similar risk reductions in individuals older than 80 years. © 2017 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.
PubMed | Dianet Dialysis Center, University Utrecht and Geriatrics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN | Year: 2016
With aging of the general population, patients who enter dialysis therapy will more frequently have geriatric impairments and a considerable comorbidity burden. The most vulnerable among these patients might benefit from conservative therapy. Whether assessment of geriatric impairments would contribute to the decision-making process of dialysis initiation is unknown.A systematic Medline and Embase search was performed on December 1, 2015 to identify studies assessing the association between risk of mortality or hospitalization and one or more geriatric impairments at the start of dialysis therapy, including impairment of cognitive function, mood, performance status or (instrumental) activities of daily living, mobility (including falls), social environment, or nutritional status.Twenty-seven studies were identified that assessed one or more geriatric impairments with respect to prognosis. The quality of most studies was moderate. Only seven studies carried out an analysis of elderly patients (70 years old). Malnutrition and frailty were systematically assessed, and their relation with mortality was clear. In addition, cognitive impairment and functional outcomes at the initiation of dialysis were related to an increased mortality in most studies. However, not all studies applied systematic assessment tools, thereby potentially missing relevant impairment. None of the studies applied a geriatric assessment across multiple domains.Geriatric impairment across multiple domains at dialysis initiation is related to poor outcome. However, information in the elderly is sparse, and a systematic approach of multiple domains with respect to poor outcome has not been performed. Because a geriatric assessment has proved useful in predicting outcome in other medical fields, its potential role in the ESRD population should be the subject of future research.
PubMed | University of Stirling, University of Glasgow, Geriatrics and Glasgow Caledonian University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Age and ageing | Year: 2016
constipation is one of the most common non-motor features of Parkinsons affecting up to 90% of patients. In severe cases, it can lead to hospitalisation and is usually managed with laxatives which in themselves can lead to side effects. Abdominal massage has been used as adjunct in the management of constipation in various populations, but not in those with Parkinsons.the primary objective was to test the recruitment, retention and the appropriateness of the intervention methods and outcome measures.thirty-two patients with Parkinsons were recruited from three movement disorder clinics and were randomised to receive either 6 weeks of daily abdominal massage plus lifestyle advice on managing constipation (Intervention Group, n = 16) or lifestyle advice (Control Group, n = 16). Data were collected prior to group allocation (Baseline), at Week 6 (following intervention) and 4 weeks later (Week 10). Outcome tools included the Gastrointestinal Rating Scale and a bowel diary.constipation has a negative impact on quality of life. The study recruited to target, retention was high and adherence to the study processes was good. The massage was undertaken as recommended during the 6 weeks of intervention with 50% continuing with the massage at 10 weeks. Participants in both groups demonstrated an improvement in symptoms, although this was not significantly different between the groups.abdominal massage, as an adjunct to management of constipation, offers an acceptable and potentially beneficial intervention to patients with Parkinsons.
Kagedal K.,Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute |
Kim W.S.,Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute |
Kim W.S.,University of New South Wales |
Appelqvist H.,Experimental Pathology |
And 9 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids | Year: 2010
The Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) protein mediates the trafficking of cholesterol from lysosomes to other organelles. Mutations in the NPC1 gene lead to the retention of cholesterol and other lipids in the lysosomal compartment, and such defects are the basis of NPC disease. Several parallels exist between NPC disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD), including altered cholesterol homeostasis, changes in the lysosomal system, neurofibrillary tangles, and increased amyloid-beta generation. How the expression of NPC1 in the human brain is affected in AD has not been investigated so far. In the present study, we measured NPC1 mRNA and protein expression in three distinct regions of the human brain, and we revealed that NPC1 expression is upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of AD patients compared to control individuals. In the cerebellum, a brain region that is relatively spared in AD, no difference in NPC1 expression was detected. Similarly, murine NPC1 mRNA levels were increased in the hippocampus of 12-month-old transgenic mice expressing a familial AD form of human amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) and presenilin-1 (APP/PS1tg) compared to 12-month-old wild type mice, whereas no change in NPC1 was detected in mouse cerebellum. Immunohistochemical analysis of human hippocampus indicated that NPC1 expression was strongest in neurons. However, in vitro studies revealed that NPC1 expression was not induced by transfecting SK-N-SH neurons with human APP or by treating them with oligomeric amyloid-beta peptide. Total cholesterol levels were reduced in hippocampus from AD patients compared to control individuals, and it is therefore possible that the increased expression of NPC1 is linked to perturbed cholesterol homeostasis in AD. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PubMed | U.S. National Institute on Aging, University of Pennsylvania, Johns Hopkins University, New England Research Institutes, Inc. and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrients | Year: 2015
In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2) in a cohort of late post-menopausal women.We examined 512 women 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, -caroten, -caroten, -criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998-2000) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T) levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA) and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2), as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1) and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2) were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3.After adjustment for age, -carotene ( SE = -0.01 0.004, p = 0.02) and -carotene ( SE = -0.07 0.02, p = 0.0007) were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. -Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio ( SE = 0.07 0.03, p = 0.01). After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2), the inverse relationship between -carotene ( SE = -1.59 0.61, p = 0.01), -carotene ( SE = -0.29 0.08, p = 0.0009), and E2 persisted whereas the relationship between -carotene and T/E2 ratio was attenuated ( SE = 0.22 0.12, p = 0.07). In a fully adjusted model (Model 3), only -carotene ( SE = -0.05 0.02, p = 0.03) was significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels independent of -carotene. No association was found between retinol, total non-pro-vitamin A carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene, and E2 levels.In older women, -carotene levels are independently and inversely associated with E2.
Littlejohns T.J.,University of Exeter |
Kos K.,University of Exeter |
Henley W.E.,University of Exeter |
Cherubini A.,Geriatrics |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2015
Objective: To investigate the complex relationship between leptin levels and cognitive decline in elderly Italians. Methods: We studied circulating fasting leptin levels in 809 elderly adults free from dementia who participated in the prospective Italian population-based InCHIANTI study between 1998 and 2009 (mean follow-up of 8.0 years). Global cognitive decline was defined as a reduction of ≥5 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Trail-Making Tests A and B were also incorporated, with cognitive decline defined as discontinued testing or the worst 10% of change from baseline. We also investigated whether any association could be explained by midlife weight and whether cognitive decline was associated with changing leptin levels. Results: The multivariate adjusted relative risk ([RR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]) of cognitive decline on the MMSE was 0.84 (95% CI 0.73-0.97) in relation to baseline sex-standardized log-leptin levels. High leptin levels showed a non-significant trend toward a reduced risk of decline on the Trail-Making Tests A (RR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.71-1.02) and B (RR = 0.90, 0.79-1.02). Adjusting for midlife weight or change in weight did not alter the pattern of results, and cognitive decline was not associated with changing leptin levels. Conclusions: High leptin levels were independently associated with a reduced risk of cognitive decline in elderly Italians.Background: US studies suggest that leptin, a fat-derived hormone, may be protective against the development of dementia. © 2015 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.
PubMed | U.S. National Institute on Aging, University of Ferrara, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Geriatrics and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences | Year: 2016
Sarcopenia is associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes in older people. Aim of the study was to explore the predictive value of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) diagnostic algorithm in terms of disability, hospitalization, and mortality and analyze the specific role of grip strength and walking speed as diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia.Longitudinal analysis of 538 participants enrolled in the InCHIANTI study. Sarcopenia was defined as having low muscle mass plus low grip strength or low gait speed (EWGSOP criteria). Muscle mass was assessed using bioimpedance analysis. Cox proportional and logistic regression models were used to assess risk of death, hospitalization, and disability for sarcopenic people and to investigate the individual contributions of grip strength and walking speed to the predictive value of the EWGSOPs algorithm.Prevalence of EWGSOP-defined sarcopenia at baseline was 10.2%. After adjusting for potential confounders, sarcopenia was associated with disability (odds ratio 3.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-7.05), hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] 1.57; 95% CI 1.03-2.41), and mortality (HR 1.88; 95% CI 0.91-3.91). The association between an alternative sarcopenic phenotype, defined only by the presence of low muscle mass and low grip strength, and both disability and mortality were similar to the association with the phenotypes defined by low muscle mass and low walking speed or by the EWGSOP algorithm.The EWGSOPs phenotype is a good predictor of incident disability, hospitalization and death. Assessment of only muscle weakness, in addition to low muscle mass, provided similar predictive value as compared to the original algorithm.
PubMed | University of Exeter, U.S. National Institute on Aging, Geriatrics and University of Michigan
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD | Year: 2015
US studies suggest that leptin, a fat-derived hormone, may be protective against the development of dementia.To investigate the complex relationship between leptin levels and cognitive decline in elderly Italians.We studied circulating fasting leptin levels in 809 elderly adults free from dementia who participated in the prospective Italian population-based InCHIANTI study between 1998 and 2009 (mean follow-up of 8.0 years). Global cognitive decline was defined as a reduction of 5 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Trail-Making Tests A and B were also incorporated, with cognitive decline defined as discontinued testing or the worst 10% of change from baseline. We also investigated whether any association could be explained by midlife weight and whether cognitive decline was associated with changing leptin levels.The multivariate adjusted relative risk ([RR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]) of cognitive decline on the MMSE was 0.84 (95% CI 0.73-0.97) in relation to baseline sex-standardized log-leptin levels. High leptin levels showed a non-significant trend toward a reduced risk of decline on the Trail-Making Tests A (RR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.71-1.02) and B (RR = 0.90, 0.79-1.02). Adjusting for midlife weight or change in weight did not alter the pattern of results, and cognitive decline was not associated with changing leptin levels.High leptin levels were independently associated with a reduced risk of cognitive decline in elderly Italians.
Khan B.A.,Pulmonary and Critical Care |
Khan B.A.,Indiana University |
Khan B.A.,Regenstrief Institute Inc. |
Zawahiri M.,Indiana University |
And 8 more authors.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society | Year: 2011
To improve delirium recognition and care, numerous serum biomarkers have been investigated as potential tools for risk stratification, diagnosis, monitoring, and prognostication of delirium. The literature was reviewed, and no evidence was found to support the clinical use of any delirium biomarker, although certain biomarkers such as S-100 beta and insulin-like growth factor-1 and inflammatory markers have shown some promising results that need to be evaluated in future studies with appropriate sample size, prospective designs, and in a more-generalizable population. © 2011, Copyright the Authors.