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Scafato E.,Centro Nazionale Of Epidemiologia Sorveglianza E Promozione Della Salute Cnesps | Galluzzo L.,Centro Nazionale Of Epidemiologia Sorveglianza E Promozione Della Salute Cnesps | Ghirini S.,Centro Nazionale Of Epidemiologia Sorveglianza E Promozione Della Salute Cnesps | Gandin C.,Centro Nazionale Of Epidemiologia Sorveglianza E Promozione Della Salute Cnesps | And 6 more authors.
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2012

Background Depression is recognized as being associated with increased mortality. However, there has been little previous research on the impact of longitudinal changes in late-life depressive symptoms on mortality, and of their remission in particular. Method As part of a prospective, population-based study on a random sample of 5632 subjects aged 65-84 years, with a 10-year follow-up of vital status, depressive symptoms were assessed by the 30-item Italian version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The number of participants in the GDS measurements was 3214 at baseline and 2070 at the second survey, 3 years later. Longitudinal changes in depressive symptoms (stable, remitted, worsened) were examined in participants in both evaluations (n=1941). Mortality hazard ratios (MHRs) according to severity of symptoms and their changes over time were obtained by means of Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusting for age and other potentially confounding factors. Results Severity is significantly associated with excess mortality in both genders. Compared to the stability of depressive symptoms, a worsened condition shows a higher 7-year mortality risk [MHR 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.84], whereas remission reduces by about 40% the risk of mortality in both genders (women MHR 0.55, 95% CI 0.32-0.95; men MHR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.93). Neither sociodemographic nor medical confounders significantly modified these associations. Conclusions Consistent with previous reports, the severity and persistence of depression are associated with higher mortality risks. Our findings extend the magnitude of the association demonstrating that remission of symptoms is related to a significant reduction in mortality, highlighting the need to enhance case-finding and successful treatment of late-life depression. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

Farooqui A.A.,Ohio State University | Farooqui T.,Ohio State University | Panza F.,Geriatric Unit and Gerontology Geriatric Research Laboratory | Frisardi V.,Geriatric Unit and Gerontology Geriatric Research Laboratory
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2012

The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of common pathologies: abdominal obesity linked to an excess of visceral fat, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. At the molecular level, metabolic syndrome is accompanied not only by dysregulation in the expression of adipokines (cytokines and chemokines), but also by alterations in levels of leptin, a peptide hormone released by white adipose tissue. These changes modulate immune response and inflammation that lead to alterations in the hypothalamic 'bodyweight/appetite/ satiety set point,' resulting in the initiation and development of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for neurological disorders such as stroke, depression and Alzheimer's disease. The molecular mechanism underlying the mirror relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders is not fully understood. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that all cellular and biochemical alterations observed in metabolic syndrome like impairment of endothelial cell function, abnormality in essential fatty acid metabolism and alterations in lipid mediators along with abnormal insulin/leptin signaling may represent a pathological bridge between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression. The purpose of this review is not only to describe the involvement of brain in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, but also to link the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome with neurochemical changes in stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression to a wider audience of neuroscientists with the hope that this discussion will initiate more studies on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders. © Springer Basel AG (outside the USA) 2011.

Frisardi V.,University of Bari | Panza F.,Geriatric Unit and Gerontology Geriatric Research Laboratory | Farooqui A.A.,Ohio State University
Brain Research Reviews | Year: 2011

Late-life depressive syndromes often arise in the context of predementia, dementia syndromes, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Conversely, patients with a history of mood disorders are at higher risk of developing cognitive impairment. The high rate of co-occurrence of these two disorders is becoming a major health problem in older subjects for both their epidemiological impact and the negative outcomes in terms of disability and increased mortality. In this perspective, it is possible to speculate on the presence of a mirror relationship between depressive and cognitive disorders in late-life. Indeed, although a causal contribution of genetic, environmental, and social factors is widely recognized in these disorders, the neurobiological links still remain largely unknown. l-glutamic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid are the principal excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, respectively, and increasing evidence suggests that alterations in this neurotransmitter system may contribute to the neurobiology linking depression and cognitive impairment. In the present review article, we examined the neurobiological bases of the relationship between late-life depressive syndromes and AD, with a particular attention to glutamatergic pathway signalling like a bridge connecting these two conditions. In addition, attempts have been made to explain changes in glutamatergic pathway, depression in older age, and dementia through the analysis of signal transduction mechanisms associated with these disabling disorders. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Panza F.,Geriatric Unit and Gerontology Geriatric Research Laboratory | Frisardi V.,University of Bari | Imbimbo B.P.,Chiesi Farmaceutici | Seripa D.,Geriatric Unit and Gerontology Geriatric Research Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Current Alzheimer Research | Year: 2011

Recent advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have led to the development of putative disease-modifying treatments. The most revolutionary of these approaches consists in the removal of brain β-amyloid (Aβ) via anti-Aβ antibodies. Brain imaging and neuropathological studies have shown the ability of both active and passive anti-Aβ immunotherapies of clearing Aβ deposits from the brain of the AD patients. An active anti-Aβ vaccine preparation, AN1792, has been used in AD patients with some clues of clinical efficacy but causing meningoencephalitis in about 6% of patients and it has been abandoned. Several second-generation active Aβ vaccines and passive Aβ immunotherapies have been developed and are under clinical investigation with the aim of accelerating Aβ clearance from the brain of the AD patients. The most advanced of these immunological approaches is bapineuzumab, composed of humanized anti-Aβ monoclonal antibodies, that has been tested in two Phase II trials, demonstrating to reduce Aβ burden in the brain of AD patients. However, the preliminary cognitive efficacy of bapineuzumab appears uncertain. The occurrence of vasogenic edema, especially in apolipoprotein E E{open}4 carriers, may limit its clinical use and have led to abandon the highest dose of the drug (2 mg/kg). The results of four ongoing large Phase III trials on bapineuzumab will tell us if passive anti-Aβ immunization is able to alter the course if this devastating disease. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers.

Frisardi V.,University of Bari | Panza F.,Geriatric Unit and Gerontology Geriatric Research Laboratory | Seripa D.,Geriatric Unit and Gerontology Geriatric Research Laboratory | Imbimbo B.P.,Chiesi Farmaceutici | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2010

Recent prospective studies provided evidence that higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet could be associated with slower cognitive decline, reduced risk of progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease (AD), reduced risk of AD, and decreased mortality in AD patients. Furthermore, the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) combines several foods, micro- and macronutrients already separately proposed as potential protective factors against dementia and predementia syndromes. At present, epidemiological evidence suggests a possible association between fish consumption, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (particularly, n-3 PUFA), and reduced risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Light to moderate alcohol use may be associated with a reduced risk of incident dementia and AD, while for vascular dementia, cognitive decline, and predementia syndromes, the current evidence is only suggestive of a protective effect. Finally, the limited epidemiological evidence available on fruit and vegetable consumption and cognition generally support a protective role of these macronutrients against cognitive decline, dementia, and AD. We reviewed evidence on the possible mechanisms underlying the suggested protective role of MeDi against age-related changes in cognitive function, predementia syndromes, and dementia, examining the possible role of macronutrients and food nutrients of the MeDi and their nutraceutical properties in modulating the risk of cognitive decline. Although vascular variables are likely to be in the causal pathway between MeDi and dementia syndromes and should be considered as possible mediators, other nonvascular biological mechanisms (i.e., metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory) may be invoked to explain the complex epidemiological association between MeDi and cognitive decline. © 2010 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

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