Gerald P Murphy Cancer Foundation

West Lafayette, IN, United States

Gerald P Murphy Cancer Foundation

West Lafayette, IN, United States
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Smith B.H.,Cornell University | Smith B.H.,NewYork Presbyterian Hospital | Gazda L.S.,Cornell University | Gazda L.S.,Rogosin Institute Xenia Division | And 22 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2011

Cancer cells and their associated tumors have long been considered to exhibit unregulated proliferation or growth. However, a substantial body of evidence indicates that tumor growth is subject to both positive and negative regulatory controls. Here, we describe a novel property of tumor growth regulation that is neither species nor tumor-type specific. This property, functionally a type of feedback control, is triggered by the encapsulation of neoplastic cells in a growth-restricting hydrogel composed of an agarose matrix with a second coating of agarose to form 6- to 8-mm diameter macrobeads. In a mouse cell model of renal adenocarcinoma (RENCA cells), this process resulted in selection for a stem cell-like subpopulation which together with at least one other cell subpopulation drove colony formation in the macrobeads. Cells in these colonies produced diffusible substances that markedly inhibited in vitro and in vivo proliferation of epithelial-derived tumor cells outside the macrobeads. RENCA cells in monolayer culture that were exposed to RENCA macrobead-conditioned media exhibited cell-cycle accumulation in S phase due to activation of a G2/M checkpoint. At least 10 proteins with known tumor suppression functions were identified by analysis of RENCA macrobead-conditioned media, the properties of which offer opportunities to further dissect the molecular basis for tumor growth control. More generally, macrobead culture may permit the isolation of cancer stem cells and other cells of the stem cell niche, perhaps providing strategies to define more effective biologically based clinical approaches to treat neoplastic disease. ©2011 AACR.

Waters D.J.,Purdue University | Waters D.J.,Gerald P Murphy Cancer Foundation | Shen S.,Gerald P Murphy Cancer Foundation | Kengeri S.S.,Gerald P Murphy Cancer Foundation | And 5 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2012

Prostate cancer is the product of dysregulated homeostasis within the aging prostate. Supplementation with selenium in the form of selenized yeast (Se-yeast) significantly reduced prostate cancer incidence in the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. Conversely, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) showed no such cancer-protective advantage using selenomethionine (SeMet). The possibility that SeMet and Se-yeast are not equipotent in promoting homeostasis and cancer risk reduction in the aging prostate has not been adequately investigated; no direct comparison has ever been reported in man or animals. Here, we analyzed data on prostatic responses to SeMet or Se-yeast from a controlled feeding trial of 49 elderly beagle dogs-the only non-human species to frequently develop prostate cancer during aging-randomized to one of five groups: control; low-dose SeMet, low-dose Se-yeast (3 μg/kg); high-dose SeMet, high-dose Se-yeast (6 μg/kg). After seven months of supplementation, we found no significant selenium form-dependent differences in toenail or intraprostatic selenium concentration. Next, we determined whether SeMet or Se-yeast acts with different potency on six markers of prostatic homeostasis that likely contribute to prostate cancer risk reduction-intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T), DHT:T, and epithelial cell DNA damage, proliferation, and apoptosis. By analyzing dogs supplemented with SeMet or Se-yeast that achieved equivalent intraprostatic selenium concentration after supplementation, we showed no significant differences in potency of either selenium form on any of the six parameters over three different ranges of target tissue selenium concentration. Our findings, which represent the first direct comparison of SeMet and Se-yeast on a suite of readouts in the aging prostate that reflect flux through multiple gene networks, do not further support the notion that the null results of SELECT are attributable to differences in prostatic consequences achievable through daily supplementation with SeMet, rather than Se-yeast. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Morris J.S.,University of Missouri | Morris J.S.,Harry S Truman Memorial Veterans Hospital | Spate V.L.,University of Missouri | Ngwenyama R.A.,University of Missouri | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2012

Toenails and fingernails are routinely used to estimate selenium status in epidemiological studies; however, literature validating nail selenium concentration as a surrogate for critical organs is limited. In this study diets of intact male dogs were selenium supplemented at two physiological levels (3 and 6 μg/kg/day) in two different forms, selenomethionine and selenium-enriched bioformed yeast. The selenium-adequate basal diet consumed by the treatment and control groups during the 4-week run-in period and throughout the trial contained 0.3 ppm selenium. After 7 months the dogs in the two treatment groups and the control group were euthanized. Representative tissue samples from prostate, brain, liver, heart and skeletal muscle were collected, rinsed and frozen. Toenail clippings from multiple toes were also collected. Selenium was determined by neutron activation analysis using Se77m (half life = 17.4 s) at the University of Missouri Research Reactor Center. NIST SRM 1577, Bovine Liver was analyzed as a quality control. The analysts were blinded to control and treatment group assignments. As expected, tissue selenium levels increased proportionally with supplementation. A slightly greater increase in tissue selenium was observed for the purified selenomethionine compared to the bioformed yeast; however this trend was significant only for brain tissue. Toenail selenium concentrations and tissue selenium were highly correlated (p<0.003) with Pearson coefficients of 0.759 (skeletal muscle), 0.745 (heart), 0.729 (brain), 0.723 (prostate), and 0.632 (liver). The toenail biologic monitor accurately assesses selenium status in skeletal muscle, heart, brain, prostate, and liver in the canine model. © Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2011.

Waters D.J.,Purdue University | Waters D.J.,Gerald P Murphy Cancer Foundation | Kengeri S.S.,Gerald P Murphy Cancer Foundation | Maras A.H.,Gerald P Murphy Cancer Foundation | Chiang E.C.,Gerald P Murphy Cancer Foundation
Theriogenology | Year: 2011

In 2009, we reported findings from the first study evaluating the relationship between canine longevity and number of years of lifetime ovary exposure. All previous studies examining gonadal influences on canine longevity relied upon categorizing females as "intact" or "spayed" based on gonadal status at the time of death. Our study of Rottweilers generated a novel result: Keeping ovaries longer was associated with living longer. This result challenged previous assumptions that spayed females live longer. In the present investigation, we explored a methodological explanation for the apparent contradiction between our results and those of others, so we might better understand the impact that timing of spaying has on longevity. We hypothesized that naming female dogs as "spayed" or "intact" based upon gonadal status at time of death - a method we refer to as dichotomous binning - inadequately represents important biological differences in lifetime ovary exposure among bitches spayed at different ages. This hypothesis predicts that a strong relationship between years of lifetime ovary exposure and longevity in a population could be obscured by categorizing females as spayed or intact. Herein, we provide support for this hypothesis by reanalyzing longevity data from 183 female Rottweilers. In this study population, there was a three-fold increased likelihood of exceptional longevity (living ≫13 yr) associated with the longest duration of ovary exposure. However, categorizing females in this population as spayed or intact yielded the spurious, contradictory assertion that spayed females (presumed to have the least ovary exposure) are more likely to reach exceptional longevity than those that are intact. Thus, by ignoring the timing of spaying in each bitch, the inference from these data was distorted. It follows from this new understanding that dichotomous binning-naming females as spayed or intact-is inadequate for representing lifetime ovary exposure, introducing misclassification bias that can generate misleading assumptions regarding the lifelong health consequences of ovariohysterectomy. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Chiang E.C.,Purdue University | Chiang E.C.,Gerald P Murphy Cancer Foundation | Bostwick D.G.,Bostwick Laboratories Inc. | Waters D.J.,Purdue University | Waters D.J.,Gerald P Murphy Cancer Foundation
BioFactors | Year: 2013

The anti-cancer activity of organic selenium has been most consistently documented at supra-nutritional levels at which selenium-dependent, antioxidant enzymes are maximized in both expression and activity. Thus, there is a strong imperative to identify mechanisms other than antioxidant protection to account for selenium's anti-cancer activity. In vivo work in dogs showed that dietary selenium supplementation decreased DNA damage but increased apoptosis in the prostate, leading to a new hypothesis: Organic selenium exerts its cancer preventive effect by selectively increasing apoptosis in DNA-damaged cells. Here, we test whether organic selenium (methylseleninic acid; MSA) triggers more apoptosis in human and canine prostate cancer cells that have more DNA damage (strand breaks) created by hydrogen-peroxide (H2O2) at noncytotoxic doses prior to MSA exposure. Apoptosis triggered by MSA was significantly higher in H2O2-damaged cells. A supra-additive effect was observed-the extent of MSA-triggered apoptosis in H2O2-damaged cells exceeded the sum of apoptosis induced by MSA or H2O2 alone. However, neither the persistence of H2O2-induced DNA damage, nor the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases was required to sensitize cells to MSA-triggered apoptosis. Our results document that selenium can exert a "homeostatic housecleaning" effect- a preferential elimination of DNA-damaged cells. This work introduces a new and potentially important perspective on the anti-cancer action of selenium in the aging prostate that is independent of its role in antioxidant protection. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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