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Baruselli P.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Marques M.O.,Geraembryo | Vieira L.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Konrad J.L.,Cat. Teriogenologia | And 2 more authors.
Revista Veterinaria | Year: 2015

The incorporation of artificial insemination and embryonic transfer techniques (in both cases at fixed times) and the application of heat synchronization and re-synchronization tools have demonstrated to be useful methods to increase the number of calves born, consequently increasing the productivity and profitability of cattle exploitations. Furthermore, the use of semen and embryos involve the genetic improvement of the farms. Such biotechnical benefits require special features, with emphasis on the appropriate control of the rodeo that includes female identification and the correct execution of the reproductive, sanitarium and nutritional procedures. Source


Filho M.F.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Marques M.O.,Geraembryo | L.U.Gimenes,Sao Paulo State University | Torres-Junior J.R.S.,Federal University of Maranhao | And 3 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2014

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the PGF2α treatment given at the onset of a synchronization of ovulation protocol using a norgestomet (NORG) ear implant on ovarian follicular dynamics (Experiment 1) and pregnancy per AI (P/AI; Experiment 2) in cyclic (CL present) Bos indicus heifers. In Experiment 1, a total of 46 heifers were presynchronized using two consecutive doses of PGF2α 12 days apart. At first day of the synchronization protocol the heifers received implants containing 3mg of NORG and 2mg of estradiol benzoate (EB). At the same time, heifers were randomly assigned to receive 150mg of d-cloprostenol (n=23; PGF2α) or no additional treatment (n=23; Control). When the ear implants were removed 8 days later, all heifers received a PGF2α treatment and 1mg of EB was given 24h later. The follicular diameter and interval to ovulation were determined by transrectal ultrasonography. No effects of PGF2α treatment on the diameter of the largest follicle present were observed at implant removal (PGF2α=9.8±0.4 vs. Control=10.0±0.3mm; P=0.73) or after 24h (PGF2α=11.1±0.4 vs. Control=11.0±0.4mm; P=0.83). No differences in the time of ovulation after ear implant removal (PGF2α=70.8±1.2 vs. Control=73.3±0.9h; P=0.10) or in the ovulation rate (PGF2α=87.0 vs. Control=82.6%; P=0.64) between treatments were observed. In Experiment 2, 280 cyclic heifers were synchronized using the same experimental design described above (PGF2α; n=143 and Control; n=137), at random day of the estrous cycle. All heifers received 300 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and 0.5mg of estradiol cypionate (as ovulatory stimulus) when the NORG ear implants were removed. Timed artificial insemination (TAI) was performed 48h after implant removal and the pregnancy diagnosis was conducted 30 days later. No effects on the P/AI due to PGF2α treatment were observed (PGF2α=51.7 vs. Control=57.7%; P=0.29). In conclusion, PGF2α treatment at the onset of NORG-based protocols for the synchronization of ovulation did not alter the ovarian follicular responses or the P/AI in cyclic Bos indicus beef heifers synchronized for TAI. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Sa Filho M.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Nasser L.F.T.,Born Technologies | Penteado L.,Firmasa Tecnologia para Pecuaria | Prestes R.,Firmasa Tecnologia para Pecuaria | And 6 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2015

The present aimed to develop a hormonal therapy based on the insertion of a progesterone (P4) insert (PI) during 10 d plus an estradiol injection (E2) at PI removal before the onset of breeding of beef heifers. In Exp. 1, the plasma P4 profile of prepubertal heifers showed that the insertion of a PI or 24 d previously used P4 insert (UPI) sustained plasma P4 above 1ng/mL for at least the first 7 d of the treatment. In Exp. 2 there was no positive effect of additional estradiol benzoate (EB) administered at the insertion of UPI on the proportion of heifers with a corpus luteum (CL/Treated) 30 d after UPI removal [UPI+EB=85.3%a (n=134); EB+UPI+EB=80.8%a (n=125)]; however, both were greater (P<0.0001) than the Control group [60.3%b (n=129)]. In Exp. 3, a positive effect (P=0.01) of UPI treatment and both E2 supplementations [EB and estradiol cypionate (EC); P=0.10] at the UPI removal was observed on CL/Treated [Control=42.5%b (n=94); UPI=58.5%a (n=130); UPI+EB=64.0%a (n=128); UPI+EC=67.2%a (n=128)]. However, greater pregnancy per treated heifer (P/Treated) following artificial insemination (AI) upon estrus detection was achieved when EC was applied [Control=20.2%b; UPI=29.2%ab; UPI+EB=26.6%b; UPI+EC=36.7%a]. In Exp. 4, the treatment prior to the timed AI (TAI) tended to improve pregnancy per TAI [P/AI; Control 43.6% (n=298) vs. UPI+EC 51.9% (n=342); P=0.08], but increased P/Treated [26.5% vs. 43.3%; P<0.001]. Thus, UPI+EC treatment were efficient in increasing the CL/Treated, tended to improve the P/AI and consequently enhanced P/Treated of zebu beef heifers. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Sa Filho M.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Ayres H.,University of Sao Paulo | Ferreira R.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Marques M.O.,Geraembryo | And 6 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2010

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) at progestin removal and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at timed artificial insemination (TAI) on ovarian follicular dynamics (Experiment 1) and pregnancy rates (Experiment 2) in suckled Nelore (Bos indicus) cows. Both experiments were 2 × 2 factorials (eCG or No eCG, and GnRH or No GnRH), with identical treatments. In Experiment 1, 50 anestrous cows, 134.5 ± 2.3 d postpartum, received a 3 mg norgestomet ear implant sc, plus 3 mg norgestomet and 5 mg estradiol valerate im on Day 0. The implant was removed on Day 9, with TAI 54 h later. Cows received 400 IU eCG or no further treatment on Day 9 and GnRH (100 μg gonadorelin) or no further treatment at TAI. Treatment with eCG increased the growth rate of the largest follicle from Days 9 to 11 (means ± SEM, 1.53 ± 0.1 vs. 0.48 ± 0.1 mm/d; P < 0.0001), its diameter on Day 11 (11.4 ± 0.6 vs. 9.3 ± 0.7 mm; P = 0.03), as well as ovulation rate (80.8% vs. 50.0%, P = 0.02), whereas GnRH improved the synchrony of ovulation (72.0 ± 1.1 vs. 71.1 ± 2.0 h). In Experiment 2 (n = 599 cows, 40 to 120 d postpartum), pregnancy rates differed (P = 0.004) among groups (27.6%, 40.1%, 47.7%, and 55.7% for Control, GnRH, eCG, and eCG + GnRH groups). Both eCG and GnRH improved pregnancy rates (51.7% vs. 33.8%, P = 0.002; and 48.0% vs 37.6%, P = 0.02, respectively), although their effects were not additive (no significant interaction). In conclusion, eCG at norgestomet implant removal increased the growth rate of the largest follicle (LF) from implant removal to TAI, the diameter of the LF at TAI, and rates of ovulation and pregnancy rates. Furthermore, GnRH at TAI improved the synchrony of ovulations and pregnancy rates in postpartum Nelore cows treated with a norgestomet-based TAI protocol. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Sa Filho M.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Marques M.O.,Geraembryo | Girotto R.,RG Genetica Avancada | Santos F.A.,RG Genetica Avancada | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2014

Two experiments were designed to evaluate the use of resynchronization (RESYNCH) protocols using a progestin-based timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol in beef cattle. In experiment 1, 475 cyclic Nelore heifers were resynchronized 22 days after the first TAI using two different inducers of new follicular wave emergence (estradiol benzoate [EB; n = 241] or GnRH [n = 234]) with the insertion of a norgestomet ear implant. At ear implant removal (7 days later), a pregnancy test was performed, and nonpregnant heifers received a dose of prostaglandin plus 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate, with a timed insemination 48 hours later. The pregnancy rate after the first TAI was similar (P = 0.97) between treatments (EB [41.9%] vs. GnRH [41.5%]). However, EB-treated heifers (49.3%) had a greater (P = 0.04) pregnancy per AI (P/AI) after the resynchronization than the GnRH-treated heifers (37.2%). In experiment 2, the pregnancy loss in 664 zebu females (344 nonlactating cows and 320 cyclic heifers) between 30 and 60 days after resynchronization was evaluated. Females were randomly assigned to one of two groups (RESYNCH 22 days after the first TAI [n = 317] or submitted only to natural mating [NM; n = 347]). Females from the NM group were maintained with bulls from 15 to 30 days after the first TAI. The RESYNC-treated females were resynchronized 22 days after the first TAI using 1 mg of EB on the first day of the resynchronization, similar to experiment 1. No difference was found in P/AI (NM [57.1%] vs. RESYNC [61.5%]; P = 0.32) or pregnancy loss (NM [2.0%] vs. RESYNC [4.1%]; P = 0.21) after the first TAI. Moreover, the overall P/AI after the RESYNCH protocol was 47.5%. Thus, the administration of 1 mg of EB on day 22 after the first TAI, when the pregnancy status was undetermined, promotes a higher P/AI in the resynchronized TAI than the use of GnRH. Also, the administration of 1 mg of EB 22 days after the TAI did not affect the preestablished pregnancy. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

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