News Article | February 27, 2017
This webinar, sponsored by Beckman Coulter Life Sciences, provides an overview on laser diffraction analysis as a tool to characterize particle size distributions in the field of geoscience and soil science, highlighting its capabilities, significance and potential to obtain improved results and novel scientific findings. It describes methods of optimized and standardized sample collection, preparation and measurement as well as preferable technical peripheral appliances and set-up. As an added resource, selected case studies will be presented and discussed, further illustrating that a high measurement resolution and high number of detector elements, characteristic features of the Beckman Coulter LS13320 PIDS laser diffraction analyzer, are key for applications in the wide field of geoscience and soil science. Attendees will learn and discuss laser diffraction analysis as a tool to characterize particle size distributions in the field of geoscience and soil science, as well as the preparation and treatment of geoscience materials for laser diffraction measurements. The speaker for this presentation will be Dr. Björn Machalett, a research fellow in the department of geosciences at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Machalett earned a doctorate in Geosciences from the Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Germany. Applying fine scale particle-size measurements on the Beckman-Coulter LS13330 Laser Particle Size analyzer, Machalett has developed novel sedimentological proxies as a tool to reconstruct past climate change and pioneered the use of detailed, high resolution, particle size analyses in studies of aeolian dust sedimentary records. He is currently working as a research fellow by the German Science Foundation (DFG), where his work focuses on atmospheric circulation patterns during the Pleistocene across Eurasia at various short and intermediate temporal scales and regional to hemispheric spatial scales. LabRoots will host this event March 2, 2017, beginning at 7:00 a.m. PT, 10:00 a.m. ET, 4:00 p.m. CET. To read more about this event, learn about the P.A.C.E. and Florida continuing education credits offered, or to register for free, click here. ABOUT BECKMAN COULTER Beckman Coulter serves customers in two segments: Diagnostics and Life Sciences. The company develops, manufactures, and markets products that simplify, automate, and innovate complex biomedical testing. More than 275,000 Beckman Coulter systems operate in both Diagnostics and Life Sciences laboratories on seven continents. Scientists use Beckman Coulter’s Life Science research instruments to study complex biological problems, including causes of disease and potential new therapies or drugs. ABOUT LABROOTS LabRoots is the leading scientific social networking website and producer of educational virtual events and webinars. Contributing to the advancement of science through content sharing capabilities, LabRoots is a powerful advocate in amplifying global networks and communities. Founded in 2008, LabRoots emphasizes digital innovation in scientific collaboration and learning, and is a primary source for current scientific news, webinars, virtual conferences, and more. LabRoots has grown into the world’s largest series of virtual events within the Life Sciences and Clinical Diagnostics community.
News Article | February 21, 2017
Warming in the 21st century reduced Colorado River flows by at least 0.5 million acre-feet, about the amount of water used by 2 million people for one year, according to new research from the University of Arizona and Colorado State University. The research is the first to quantify the different effects of temperature and precipitation on recent Colorado River flow, said authors Bradley Udall of CSU and Jonathan Overpeck of the UA. "This paper is the first to show the large role that warming temperatures are playing in reducing the flows of the Colorado River," said Overpeck, UA Regents' Professor of Geosciences and of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences and director of the UA Institute of the Environment. From 2000-2014, the river's flows declined to only 81 percent of the 20th-century average, a reduction of about 2.9 million acre-feet of water per year. One acre-foot of water will serve a family of four for one year, according to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. From one-sixth to one-half of the 21st-century reduction in flow can be attributed to the higher temperatures since 2000, report Udall and Overpeck. Their analysis shows as temperature continues to increase with climate change, Colorado River flows will continue to decline. Current climate change models indicate temperatures will increase as long as humans continue to emit greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, but the projections of future precipitation are far less certain. Forty million people rely on the Colorado River for water, according to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The river supplies water to seven U.S. Western states plus the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California. Udall, a senior water and climate scientist/scholar at CSU's Colorado Water Institute, said, "The future of Colorado River is far less rosy than other recent assessments have portrayed. A clear message to water managers is that they need to plan for significantly lower river flows." The study's findings, he said, "provide a sobering look at future Colorado River flows." The Colorado River Basin has been in a drought since 2000. Previous research has shown the region's risk of a megadrought--one lasting more than 20 years--rises as temperatures increase. Overpeck said, "We're the first to make the case that warming alone could cause Colorado River flow declines of 30 percent by midcentury and over 50 percent by the end of the century if greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated." The paper by Udall and Overpeck, "The 21st Century Colorado River Hot Drought and Implications for the Future," went online Feb. 17 in the American Geophysical Union journal Water Resources Research. The Colorado Water Institute, National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Geological Survey funded the research. The team began its investigation because Udall learned that recent Colorado flows were lower than managers expected given the amount of precipitation. The two researchers wanted to provide water managers with insight into how future projections of temperature and precipitation for the Colorado River Basin would affect the river's flows. Udall and Overpeck began by looking at the drought years of 2000-2014. About 85 percent of the river's flow originates as precipitation in the Upper Basin--the part of the river that drains portions of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico. The team found during 2000-2014, temperatures in the river's Upper Basin were 1.6 degrees F (0.9 C) higher than the average for the previous 105 years. To see how increased temperatures might contribute to the reductions in the river's flow that have been observed since 2000, Udall and Overpeck reviewed and synthesized 25 years of research about how climate and climate change have and will affect the region and how temperature and precipitation affect the river's flows. Water loss increases as temperatures rise because plants use more water, and higher temperatures increase evaporative loss from the soil and from the water surface and lengthen the growing season. In previous research, Overpeck and other colleagues showed current climate models simulated 20th-century conditions well, but the models cannot simulate the 20- to 60-year megadroughts known to have occurred in the past. Moreover, many of those models did not reproduce the current drought. Those researchers and others suggest the risk of a multidecadal drought in the Southwest in the 21st century is much higher than climate models indicate and that as temperatures increase, the risk of such a drought increases. Udall said, "A megadrought in this century will throw all our operating rules out the window." Udall and Overpeck found all current climate models agree that temperatures in the Colorado River Basin will continue rising if the emission of greenhouse gases is not curbed. However, the models' predictions of future precipitation in the Basin have much more uncertainty. Overpeck said, "Even if the precipitation does increase, our work indicates that there are likely to be drought periods as long as several decades when precipitation will still fall below normal." The new study suggests Colorado River flows will continue to decline. Udall said, "I was surprised at the extent to which the uncertain precipitation aspects of the current projections hid the temperature-induced flow declines." The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation lumps temperature and precipitation together in its projections of Colorado River flow, he said. "Current planning understates the challenge that climate change poses to the water supplies in the American Southwest," Udall said. "My goal is to help water managers incorporate this information into their long-term planning efforts."
News Article | March 1, 2017
Humans: The greatest contributor to diversity of minerals since oxygen; Officially recognized minerals, formed by nature: More than 5,000; Formed due to human activity: 208 Human industry and ingenuity has done more to diversify and distribute minerals on Earth than any development since the rise of oxygen over 2.2 billion years ago, experts say in a paper published today. The work bolsters the scientific argument to officially designate a new geological time interval distinguished by the pervasive impact of human activities: the Anthropocene Epoch. In the paper, published by American Mineralogist, a team led by Robert Hazen of the Carnegie Institution for Science identifies for the first time a group of 208 mineral species that originated either principally or exclusively due to human activities. That's almost 4% of the roughly 5,200 minerals officially recognized by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA). Most of the recognized minerals attributed to human activities originated through mining -- in ore dumps, through the weathering of slag, formed in tunnel walls, mine water or timbers, or through mine fires. Six were found on the walls of smelters; three formed in a geothermal piping system. Some minerals formed due to human actions can also occur naturally. Three in that category were discovered on corroded lead artifacts aboard a Tunisian shipwreck, two on bronze artifacts in Egypt, and two on tin artifacts in Canada. Four were discovered at prehistoric sacrificial burning sites in the Austrian mountains. According to the paper, the first great 'punctuation event' in the history of Earth's mineral diversity occurred more than 2 billion years ago when the increase of oxygen in the atmosphere -- 'the Great Oxidation' -- gave rise to as many as two-thirds of the more than 5,200 mineral species officially recognized today. Says Dr. Hazen, who co-wrote the paper with Edward Grew of the University of Maine, and Marcus Origlieri and Robert Downs of the University of Arizona: "Mineral evolution has continued throughout Earth's history. It has taken 4.5 billion years for combinations of elements to meet naturally on Earth at a specific location, depth and temperature, and to form into the more than 5,200 minerals officially recognized today. The majority of these have arisen since the Great Oxidation event 2 billion years ago. " "Within that collection of 5,200 are 208 minerals produced directly or indirectly by human activities, mostly since the mid-1700s, and we believe that others continue to be formed at that same relatively blazing pace. To imagine 250 years relative to 2 billion years, that's the difference between the blink of an eye (one third of a second) and one month." "Simply put, we live in an era of unparalleled inorganic compound diversification," says Dr. Hazen. "Indeed, if the Great Oxidation eons ago was a 'punctuation event' in Earth's history, the rapid and extensive geological impact of the Anthropocene is an exclamation mark." A mineral species is defined as a naturally occurring crystalline compound that has a unique combination chemical composition and crystal structure. As of February, 2017, the IMA had approved 5,208 species (see rruff.info/ima for a complete list). The authors of the recent paper argue that with so many minerals and mineral-like compounds owing their origin to human activities, "a more comprehensive understanding and analysis of the mineralogical nature of the Anthropocene Epoch is warranted." Humanity has had a major impact on diversity and distribution in the mineral world in three principal ways, according to the paper: 1 a) Manufacturing synthetic "mineral-like" compounds, and b) causing minerals to form as an unintentional byproduct of human activity a) Directly creating synthetic mineral-like compounds such as YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) crystals used in lasers, silicon "chips" for semi-conductors, carbide grits for abrasives, and various specialty metals and alloys for magnets, machine parts, and tools. Other examples include bricks, earthenware, porcelain, glass and limestone-based Portland cement -- the world's most common form of cement, used in concrete, mortar, stucco and grout -- a combination of calcium silicates, calcium sulfates, and other compounds b) Indirectly contributing to the formation of new minerals through mining, with new compounds appearing on mine walls or in mine dumps, for example. Of special interest are minerals found associated with ancient lead-zinc mining localities, including some possibly dating from the Bronze Age, and others from as far back as 300 AD.? In addition to creating new compounds, human activities such as mining and the transport of stone blocks, rocks, sediments, and minerals from their original location to help build roads, bridges, waterways, monuments, kitchen counters, and other human infrastructure, rivals in scale nature's redistribution such as via glaciers. Mining operations, meanwhile, have stripped the near-surface environment of ores and fossil fuels, leaving large open pits, tunnel complexes, and, in the case of strip mining, sheared off mountaintops. Diamonds, rubies, emeralds, sapphires, and a host of semi-precious stones, accompanied by concentrations of gold, silver, and platinum, are found in shops and households in every corner of the globe. Collections of fine mineral specimens juxtapose mineral species that would not occur naturally in combination. From modest beginner collector sets of more common minerals to the world's greatest museums, these collections, if buried in the stratigraphic record and subsequently unearthed in the distant future, "would reveal unambiguously the passion of humans for the beauty and wonder of the mineral kingdom," the paper says. Says Dr. Downs: "Given humanity's pervasive influences on the environment, there must be hundreds of as yet unrecognized 'minerals' in old mines, smelters, abandoned buildings, and other sites. Meanwhile, new suites of compounds may now be forming in, for example, solid waste dumps where old batteries, electronics, appliances, and other high-tech discards are exposed to weathering and alteration." Adds Dr. Origlieri: "In the sediment layers left behind from our age, future mineralogists will find plentiful building materials such as bricks, cinder blocks, and cement, metal alloys such as steel, titanium, and aluminum, along with many lethal radioactive byproducts of the nuclear age. They might also marvel at some beautiful manufactured gemstones, like cubic zirconia, moissanite, synthetic rubies, and many others." Says Dr. Grew: "These minerals and mineral-like compounds will be preserved in the geological record as a distinctive, globally-distributed horizon of crystalline novelty--a persistent marker that marks our age as different from all that came before." Calclacite, described by a Belgium-based scientist in 1959, and which originated in an old oak storage cabinet for mineral specimens at the Royal Museum of Natural History, Brussels, is an officially recognized mineral that wouldn't qualify today; in 1998 the IMA decided to disallow any substance "made by Man." Other recognized anthropogenic minerals in this category include several slag-related minerals as well as a pair from Russia, niobocarbide and tantalcarbide, which some experts believe may have been a hoax -- "a laboratory product ... deliberately passed off as a natural material" in the early 1900s. Though unlikely to pass scrutiny today, says Dr. Grew, previously recognized minerals such as these, rather than being invalidated, have been allowed to remain in the IMA catalog. The IMA did agree to recognize a mineral in cases "in which human intervention in the creation of a substance is less direct." The origin of up to 29 forms of carbon: humanity Of the 208 human-mediated minerals identified by the Deep Carbon Observatory researchers, 29 contain carbon. Origins and forms, along with movements and quantities, are four themes of the DCO (deepcarbon.net). Dr. Hazen is the DCO's Executive Director. Now we know that as many as 29 carbon minerals originated with human activities, of which 14 have no recorded natural occurrences. It is fair, therefore, to consider the 14 as the youngest carbon mineral species. Among the 14, candidates for the very youngest include a dozen minerals related to uranium mines. The mineral andersonite, for example, is found in the tunnels of certain abandoned uranium mines in the American Southwest. At places along the tunnel walls, sandstone becomes saturated with water that contains elements that form a beautiful crust of yellow, orange and green crystals. Prized for its bright green fluorescent glow under a black light, a good sample of andersonite will fetch up to $500 from a collector. Another notable carbon-bearing mineral is tinnunculite, determined to be a product of hot gases reacting with the excrement of the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) at a burning coal mine in Kopeisk, Chelyabinsk, Russia. It was subsequently discovered also on Russia's Mt. Rasvumchorr -- an entirely natural occurrence. Tinnunculite is one of eight new minerals identified as part of the Deep Carbon Observatory's Carbon Mineral Challenge, launched in 2015 to track down an estimated 145 carbon-bearing minerals yet to be formally recognized. The IMA recognized tinnunculite as a mineral in 2015. Inadvertently produced or human-mediated minerals, occurring or suspected to occur in nature Although yet to be confirmed by the International Union of Geological Sciences, there is growing advocacy for formal recognition of the "Anthropocene Epoch," the successor of the Holocene Epoch, which began some 11,500 years ago when the most recent ice age glaciers began to retreat. Epochs are normally separated by significant changes in the rock layers to which they correspond. A 35-member Working Group on the Anthropocene (WGA) recommended formal designation of the epoch Anthropocene to the International Geological Congress on 29 August 2016. It may be several years before a final decision is reached.? Robert Hazen is Senior Staff Scientist at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC, and Executive Director of the Deep Carbon Observatory Edward Grew is a Research Professor, Earth and Climate Sciences, University of Maine Marcus Origlieri is a Research Associate, University of Arizona Robert Downs is a Professor of Geosciences specializing in mineralogy and crystallography, University of Arizona
News Article | February 21, 2017
Michael Sweatman, Eureka's President and CEO stated: "This initial program, which will be comprised of a ground magnetic survey and a VLF electromagnetic survey is the first step of exploration on the TAK property, one of our recently acquired Yukon properties." The work will be performed and directed by Aurora Geosciences of Whitehorse. The data obtained from the surveys will provide Eureka with valuable information to assist in the development of a Phase 2 exploration plan for TAK. Since acquiring TAK, the Company's technical group has commenced a review of all the historical data acquired as part of the transaction. Eureka plans to integrate the historical data with the 2017 geophysical results in order to prioritize target areas on the property. The Company has begun the permitting process for a spring/summer exploration program on the TAK property. Eureka's FG property is an advanced-stage gold project located in the Cariboo and currently under option to Canarc Resources Corp. Historical exploration has established a Measured and Indicated (376,000 ounces) gold resource at an average grade of 0.776 g/t gold, using a cut-off grade of 0.5 g/t, and an Inferred gold resource (634,900 ounces) at an average grade of 0.718 g/t gold, using a cut-off grade of 0.5 g/t. Details of the gold resource can be found in "NI 43-101 Technical Report, Frasergold Exploration Project, Cariboo Mining Division, dated July 27, 2015" available on SEDAR or at the Company's website. Eureka's Gold Creek property, also located in the Cariboo, is a grassroots gold project neighbouring, and with similar geology to the Spanish Mountain gold deposit owned by Spanish Mountain Gold Ltd. Eureka's Luxor property consists of three non-contiguous claim blocks totaling 360 mining claims (approximately 7,000 hectares). Luxor is located in the Dawson Range Gold Belt, a district of major porphyry, breccia and vein occurrences. Neighbouring properties include the Coffee deposit recently acquired by Goldcorp and Western Copper's Casino deposit. Eureka's TAK property is located in the Dawson Range Gold Belt and consists of 82 mining claims (1,695 hectares). Eureka owns a 50 per-cent interest in the Gemini lithium brine property located approximately 40 km (26 miles) south of North America's only producing lithium mine at Silver Peak. Kristian Whitehead, P.Geo., and John Kerr, P. Eng., are the Company's designated Qualified Persons for this news release within the meaning of NI 43-101 and have reviewed and approved the technical information described in this news release. Further information on Eureka can be found on the Company's website at www.eurekaresourcesinc.com and at www.sedar.com, or by contacting Michael Sweatman, President and CEO, or Bob Ferguson by email at firstname.lastname@example.org or by telephone at (604) 449-2273. This news release includes certain "forward-looking statements" under applicable Canadian securities legislation that are not historical facts. Forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties, and other factors that could cause actual results, performance, prospects, and opportunities to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements in this news release include, but are not limited to, statements with respect to the Company's proposed financings, objectives, goals and future exploration plans on the Company's mineral properties, the costs related to the Company's proposed exploration programs, and the business and operations of the Company. Forward-looking statements are necessarily based on a number of estimates and assumptions that, while considered reasonable, are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause actual results and future events to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such factors include, but are not limited to: general business, economic and social uncertainties; litigation, legislative, environmental and other judicial, regulatory, political and competitive developments; delay or failure to receive board or regulatory approvals; those additional risks set out in the Company's public documents filed on SEDAR at www.sedar.com; and other matters discussed in this news release. Although the Company believes that the assumptions and factors used in preparing the forward-looking statements are reasonable, undue reliance should not be placed on these statements, which only apply as of the date of this news release, and no assurance can be given that such events will occur in the disclosed time frames or at all. Except where required by law, the Company disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.
News Article | February 21, 2017
VANCOUVER, BC / ACCESSWIRE / February 21, 2017 / Eureka Resources, Inc. (TSX-V: EUK) ("Eureka" or the "Company") is pleased to announce that exploration has commenced on its TAK property ("TAK"), Yukon Territory. The property is located in the heart of the very active Dawson Range Gold Belt, approximately 120 kilometres southeast of Dawson City, and consists of 82 mining claims (1,695 hectares). Michael Sweatman, Eureka's President and CEO stated: "This initial program, which will be comprised of a ground magnetic survey and a VLF electromagnetic survey is the first step of exploration on the TAK property, one of our recently acquired Yukon properties." The work will be performed and directed by Aurora Geosciences of Whitehorse. The data obtained from the surveys will provide Eureka with valuable information to assist in the development of a Phase 2 exploration plan for TAK. Since acquiring TAK, the Company's technical group has commenced a review of all the historical data acquired as part of the transaction. Eureka plans to integrate the historical data with the 2017 geophysical results in order to prioritize target areas on the property. The Company has begun the permitting process for a spring/summer exploration program on the TAK property. Eureka's FG property is an advanced-stage gold project located in the Cariboo and currently under option to Canarc Resources Corp. Historical exploration has established a Measured and Indicated (376,000 ounces) gold resource at an average grade of 0.776 g/t gold, using a cut-off grade of 0.5 g/t, and an Inferred gold resource (634,900 ounces) at an average grade of 0.718 g/t gold, using a cut-off grade of 0.5 g/t. Details of the gold resource can be found in "NI 43-101 Technical Report, Frasergold Exploration Project, Cariboo Mining Division, dated July 27, 2015" available on SEDAR or at the Company's website. Eureka's Gold Creek property, also located in the Cariboo, is a grassroots gold project neighbouring, and with similar geology to the Spanish Mountain gold deposit owned by Spanish Mountain Gold Ltd. Eureka's Luxor property consists of three non-contiguous claim blocks totaling 360 mining claims (approximately 7,000 hectares). Luxor is located in the Dawson Range Gold Belt, a district of major porphyry, breccia and vein occurrences. Neighbouring properties include the Coffee deposit recently acquired by Goldcorp and Western Copper's Casino deposit. Eureka's TAK property is located in the Dawson Range Gold Belt and consists of 82 mining claims (1,695 hectares). Eureka owns a 50 per-cent interest in the Gemini lithium brine property located approximately 40 km (26 miles) south of North America's only producing lithium mine at Silver Peak. Kristian Whitehead, P.Geo., and John Kerr, P. Eng., are the Company's designated Qualified Persons for this news release within the meaning of NI 43-101 and have reviewed and approved the technical information described in this news release. Further information on Eureka can be found on the Company's website at www.eurekaresourcesinc.com and at www.sedar.com, or by contacting Michael Sweatman, President and CEO, or Bob Ferguson by email at [email protected] or by telephone at (604) 449-2273. This news release includes certain "forward-looking statements" under applicable Canadian securities legislation that are not historical facts. Forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties, and other factors that could cause actual results, performance, prospects, and opportunities to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements in this news release include, but are not limited to, statements with respect to the Company's proposed financings, objectives, goals and future exploration plans on the Company's mineral properties, the costs related to the Company's proposed exploration programs, and the business and operations of the Company. Forward-looking statements are necessarily based on a number of estimates and assumptions that, while considered reasonable, are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause actual results and future events to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such factors include, but are not limited to: general business, economic and social uncertainties; litigation, legislative, environmental and other judicial, regulatory, political and competitive developments; delay or failure to receive board or regulatory approvals; those additional risks set out in the Company's public documents filed on SEDAR at www.sedar.com; and other matters discussed in this news release. Although the Company believes that the assumptions and factors used in preparing the forward-looking statements are reasonable, undue reliance should not be placed on these statements, which only apply as of the date of this news release, and no assurance can be given that such events will occur in the disclosed time frames or at all. Except where required by law, the Company disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.
News Article | February 15, 2017
Epic Waters indoor waterpark completes its second milestone with the construction of a 83-foot-high, retractable roof cupola/slide tower Editors Note: There are two photos associated with this press release. Just a few weeks after installing the final aluminum rafters on the incredible Epic Waters indoor waterpark in Grand Prairie, Texas, renowned retractable roof designer OpenAire is about to put the cherry on top of this great design by completing the frame for the park's eye-catching cupola. This enclosure will reach 83 feet high at its peak and house Epic Waters' waterslide stair tower. Its installation is another milestone in the City of Grand Prairie's ambitious project to create The Epic Grand Central: a 172-acre community center that will bring a first ever indoor and outdoor recreation space to the heart of the city. Epic Waters will offer year-round aquatic fun to The Epic's visitors, thanks to a custom-designed 160-foot by 384-foot retractable enclosure from OpenAire. Already a visible icon on the Grand Prairie skyline, this new cupola will be seen for miles around. Grand Prairie residents have watched with excitement over the past few weeks as OpenAire's enclosure has taken shape. This week, the completion of the park's cupola will put the crowning touch on Epic Waters. From inside this tower, some of the USA's biggest and boldest waterslides will send guests through 62,000 square feet of sunbathed aquatic space. Once this grand cupola is installed, the OpenAire team can begin installing Epic Waters' 36 motorized operable roof panels, plus 4 operable panels above the cupola, which will open to the sunlight and fresh air in summertime but close quickly at the touch of a button during cold or inclement weather. With so many great features, The Epic Grand Central and Epic Waters are shaping up to be an amazing place like nothing Grand Prairie has seen before. OpenAire has been designing and manufacturing beautiful, high-quality, environmentally conscious retractable roof structures and skylights for over 25 years. We bring unique visions to life from initial design to installation, transforming buildings into sunlit spaces customers love. Headquartered in Oakville, Ontario, OpenAire is approaching 1,000 projects throughout North America, Europe, and the Middle East. Some of our projects include four cruise liners in Royal Caribbean's new Quantum series of ships; the Rooftop Bar at the Refinery Hotel in New York NY; Restoration Hardware's "RH Gallery" in Chicago IL; Fort Lewis College Observatory for the Geosciences, Physics and Engineering Hall in Durango, CO; Aqua Sferra Water Park (the biggest aluminum dome in the world) in Donetsk, Ukraine; Kalahari in Pocono Mountains PA (the largest waterpark under one roof in the USA); Tropicana Water Park in Stadthagen, Germany; Jay Peak Ski Resort's Pump House Indoor Waterpark in Jay, VT; the Palms Casino & Resort in Las Vegas NV; and a pool enclosure at the Hilton Toronto Airport Hotel in Toronto, ON. To learn more about OpenAire Inc.'s projects and capabilities, visit http://www.openaire.com/ and follow us on Twitter. For more details on this project, please e-mail email@example.com. To view the photos associated with this press release, please visit the following links:
News Article | February 21, 2017
New research from The University of Texas at Austin reveals that the Earth's unique iron composition isn't linked to the formation of the planet's core, calling into question a prevailing theory about the events that shaped our planet during its earliest years. The research, published in Nature Communications on Feb. 20, opens the door for other competing theories about why the Earth, relative to other planets, has higher levels of heavy iron isotopes. Among them: light iron isotopes may have been vaporized into space by a large impact with another planet that formed the moon; the slow churning of the mantle as it makes and recycles the Earth's crust may preferentially incorporate heavy iron into rock; or, the composition of the raw material that formed the planet in its earliest days may have been enriched with heavy iron. An isotope is a variety of atom that has a different weight from other atoms of the same element because it has a different numbers of neutrons. "The Earth's core formation was probably the biggest event affecting Earth's history. Materials that make up the whole Earth were melted and differentiated," said Jung-Fu Lin, a professor at the UT Jackson School of Geosciences and one of the study's authors. "But in this study, we say that there must be other origins for Earth's iron isotope anomaly." Jin Liu, now a postdoctoral researcher at Stanford University, led the research while earning his Ph.D. at the Jackson School. Collaborators include scientists from The University of Chicago, Sorbonne Universities in France, Argonne National Laboratory, the Center for High Pressure Science and Advanced Technology Research in China, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Rock samples from other planetary bodies and objects--ranging from the moon, to Mars, to ancient meteorites called chondrites--all share about the same ratio of heavy to light iron isotopes. In comparison to these samples from space, rocks from Earth have about 0.01 percent more heavy iron isotopes than light isotopes. That might not sound like much, but Lin said it's significant enough to make the Earth's iron composition unique among known worlds. "This 0.01 percent anomaly is very significant compared with, say, chondrites," Lin said. "This significant difference thus represents a different source or origin of our planet." Lin said that one of the most popular theories to explain the Earth's iron signature is that the relatively large size of the planet (compared with other rocky bodies in the solar system) created high pressure and high temperature conditions during core formation that made different proportions of heavy and light iron isotopes accumulate in the core and mantle. This resulted in a larger share of heavy iron isotopes bonding with elements that make up the rocky mantle, while lighter iron isotopes bonded together and with other trace metals to form the Earth's core. But when the research team used a diamond anvil to subject small samples of metal alloys and silicate rocks to core formation pressures, they not only found that the iron isotopes stayed put, but that the bonds between iron and other elements got stronger. Instead of breaking and rebonding with common mantle or core elements, the initial bond configuration got sturdier. "Our high pressure studies find that iron isotopic fractionation between silicate mantle and metal core is minimal," said Liu, the lead author. Co-author Nicolas Dauphas, a professor at the University of Chicago, emphasized that analyzing the atomic scale measurements was a feat unto itself. "One has to use sophisticated mathematical techniques to make sense of the measurements," he said. "It took a dream team to pull this off." Helen Williams, a geology lecturer at the University of Cambridge, said it's difficult to know the physical conditions of Earth's core formation, but that the high pressures in the experiment make for a more realistic simulation. "This is a really elegant study using a highly novel approach that confirms older experimental results and extends them to much higher pressures appropriate to the likely conditions of core-mantle equilibrium on Earth," Williams said. Lin said it will take more research to uncover the reason for the Earth's unique iron signature, and that experiments that approximate early conditions on Earth will play a key role because rocks from the core are impossible to attain. The research was funded by the National Science Foundation, the Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, NASA, the French National Research Agency, and the Consortium for Materials Properties Research in Earth Sciences.
News Article | February 6, 2017
Great disasters are great stories, great moments in time, great tests of technology, humanity, society, government, and luck. Fifty years ago it was probably true to say that our understanding of great disasters was thin, not well developed because of the relative infrequency of the events, and not very useful, not knowledge that we could use to reduce the risks from such events. This is no longer true. The last several decades has seen climate science add more climatic data because of decades of careful instrumental data collection happening, but also, earlier decades have been added to understanding the long term trends. We can now track, in detail, global surface temperatures well back into the 19th century, and we have a very good idea of change over time, and variability in, global temperatures on a century level scale for centuries. There is a slightly less finely observed record covering hundreds of thousands of years and an increasingly refined vague idea of global surface temperature for the entire history of the planet. This is true as well with earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. Most of the larger versions of these events leave a mark. Sometimes that mark is an historical record that needs to be found, verified, critiqued for veracity, and eventually added to the mix. Sometimes the mark is geological, like when the coastline of the Pacific Northwest drops a few meters all at once, creating fossilized coastal wetlands that can be dated. Those events are associated with a particular kind of earthquake that happens on average every several hundred years, and now we have a multi-thousand year record of those events, allowing an estimate of major earthquake hazard in the region. And so on. The theory has also developed, and yes, there is a theory, or really several theories, related to disasters. For example, we distinguish between hazard (chance of a particular disaster happening at a certain level in a certain area) vs. risk (the probability of a particular bad thing happening to you as a results). If you live and work in Los Angeles, your earthquake hazard is high. You will experience earthquakes. But your risk of, say, getting killed in an earthquake is actually remarkably low considering how many there are. Why? Partly because really big ones are rare and fairly localized, and partly because you live in a house and work in a building and drive on roads that meet specifications set out to reduce risk in the case of an earthquake. Also, you “know” (supposedly) what to do if an earthquake happens. If, on the other hand, you live in an old building in San Francisco, you may still be at risk if the zoning laws have not caught up with the science. If you live near sea level in the Pacific Northwest, your earthquake hazard is really low, but if one of those giant earthquakes happens, you have bigly risk. Doomed, even. Since my own research and academic interests have involved climate change, sea level rise, exploding volcanoes, mass death due to disease, and all that (catastrophes are the punctuation makrs of the long term archaeological and evolutionary record), I’ve always found books on disasters of interest. And now, I have a new one for you. Man catastrophe books are written by science-interested or historically inclined writers, who are not scientists. The regurgitate the historical record of various disasters, giving you accounts of this or that volcano exploding, or this or that tsunami wiping out a coastal city, and so on. But the better books are written by scientist who are very directly, or nearly directly, engaged in the work of understanding, documenting, and addressing catastrophe. Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards and Risk Reduction in the Modern World by Timothy Dixon is one of these. Although I was aware of Dixon’s work because of his involvement in remote sensing, I don’t know him, so I’ll crib the publisher’s bio for your edification: Timothy H. Dixon is a professor in the School of Geosciences and Director of the Natural Hazards Network at the University of South Florida in Tampa. In his research, he uses satellite geodesy and remote sensing data to study earthquakes and volcanoes, coastal subsidence and flooding, ground water extraction, and glacier motion. He has worked as a commercial pilot and scientific diver, conducted research at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and was a professor at the University of Miami, where he co-founded the Center for Southeastern Tropical Advanced Remote Sensing (CSTARS). Dixon was a Distinguished Lecturer for the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) in 2006–2007. He is also a fellow of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), the Geological Society of America (GSA), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). He received a GSA Best Paper Award in 2006 and received GSA’s Woollard Award in 2010 for excellence in Geophysics. This book covers risk theory, the basics of natural disasters, uncertainty, and vulnerability of humans. Dixon looks specifically at Fukushima and the more general problem of untoward geological events and nuclear power plants, and other aspects of tsunamis (including the Northwest Coast problem I mention above). He talks about energy and global warming; I found his discussion of what we generally call “clean energy” a bit outdates. He makes the point, correctly, that for various reasons the increase in price of fossil fuels that would ultimately drive, through market forces, the development of non-fossil fuel sources of electricity and motion is not going to happen for a very long time on its own. Environmentalists who assume there will be huge increase in fossil fuel costs any time now are almost certainly mistaken. However, Dixon significantly understates the rate at which solar, for example, is becoming economically viable. It is now cheaper to start up a solar electricity plant than it is to start any other kind of plant, and the per unit cost of solar is very low and rapidly declining. Dixon is a bit of a free marketeer, which I am not, but a realistic one; He makes valid and important points about science communication, time lags and long term thinking, and he makes the case that more research can produce important technological advances. By the way, two other books in this genre — catastrophe examined by experts — that I also recommend are Yeats “Earthquake Time Bombs” and the less up to date but geologically grounded Catastrophes!: Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Tornadoes, and Other Earth-Shattering Disasters by Don Prothero.
News Article | January 24, 2017
The lingering puzzle on how Earth's tectonic plates are powered has been answered by a new study that challenged a reigning theory. The postulate has been that Earth's tectonic plates are run by negative buoyancy induced by the plates' cooling. A new research, however, states that at least 50 percent of the plate dynamics is powered by the heat flowing from the core of Earth to the mantle. Led by David Rowley, a professor at University of Chicago's geophysical sciences department, the study claims that heat is being emitted from the core to the mantle base to move the tectonic plates and 50 percent of plate dynamics owes to the heat from the core. They drew the conclusions by clubbing observations on the sea ridge East Pacific Rise with the new data gathered from the mantle's flow modeling. "Based on our models of mantle convection, the mantle may be removing as much as half of Earth's total convective heat budget from the core," Rowley said The findings have been published in Science Advances. In terms of quantity, the heat flow between core and mantle can be about 20 terawatts capable of making continents and unmaking cities. Tectonic plates made of crust and mantle's top portion with Asthenosphere — the viscous and warm part lying below it. The latter works like a conveyor belt in forcing the 15 tectonic plates to ride on it in rendering the current shape of the landscape. The new study is certain to revolutionize earthquake predictions. Earthquakes mostly originate from the boundaries of tectonic plates and not from the middle of plates. They are triggered by reactivation of ancient faults or rifts on the plates. "The consequences of this research are very important for all scientists working on the dynamics of the Earth, including plate tectonics, seismic activity, and volcanism," noted Jean Braun from the German Research Centre for Geosciences. The new study scores over the old theory that harped on underwater ridges like the East Pacific Rise are passive boundaries between moving plates. That was on the premise that the East Pacific Rise as a whole did not move east-west for 50 to 80 million years compared to other mid-ocean ridges despite the marginal asymmetric spread of some parts. The new study said the subduction theory is falling short in explaining that process. The new findings said the plates' are moving from the buoyancy supplied by the heat of the Earth's interior and is reducing the mantle material's density by expanding buoyancy to rise and align with plates adjoining the East Pacific Rise. "The East Pacific Rise is stable because the flow arising from the deep mantle has captured it," Rowley said and added the stability is linked to the controlled mantle upwelling. According to Braun, if the heat coming from the core is substantial then the total heat contained in the core might be higher than envisaged earlier. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
News Article | March 2, 2017
"There is huge potential for geothermal energy in the U.S., and especially in California," said Patrick Dobson, who leads Berkeley Lab's Geothermal Systems program in the Energy Geosciences Division. "The U.S. Geological Survey has estimated that conventional and unconventional geothermal resources in the western U.S. are equivalent to half of the current installed generation capacity of the U.S.; however, commercial development of these resources would require significant technological advances to lower the cost of geothermal deployment." The first project will test deployment of a dense array of seismic sensors to improve the ability to image where and how fluids are moving underground. The second project will develop and apply modeling tools to enable geothermal plants to safely run in flexible (or variable) production mode, allowing for better integration with other renewable energy sources. The California Energy Commission's Electric Program Investment Charge (EPIC) program has awarded Berkeley Lab a total of $2.7 million for the two projects. California is looking to geothermal energy to help in reaching its goal of getting half of its electricity from renewable sources by the year 2030. Geothermal plants are possible only in locations with particular geological characteristics, either near active volcanic centers or in places with a very high temperature gradient, such as parts of the western United States. Thanks to its location on the Pacific "Ring of Fire," California has a vast amount of geothermal electricity generation capacity. While geothermal technology has been around for some time, one of the main barriers to wider adoption is the high up-front investment. "A large geothermal operator might drill three wells a year at a cost of approximately $7 million dollars per well. If one of the wells could provide twice the steam production, a savings of $7 million dollars could be realized. That's where we come in," said Lawrence Hutchings, a Berkeley Lab microearthquake imaging specialist who has worked in geothermal fields around the world. In a project led by Berkeley Lab scientist Kurt Nihei, a dense network of portable seismic recorders (about 100 recorders over a 5 square kilometer area) will be installed to demonstrate the ability to perform high-resolution tomographic imaging. "The goal is to image where steam and fluids are going using geophysics," Nihei said. "We will improve the spatial resolution of the imaging using a dense array and demonstrate that this can be done cost-effectively in an operating geothermal field." The demonstration will take place at The Geysers, the world's largest geothermal field, located north of San Francisco in Sonoma and Lake Counties. Wells there—some deeper than two miles—bring steam to the surface. The steam is converted to electricity while water is injected into the underground rock to replenish the steam. Berkeley Lab scientists currently run a network of 32 seismic recorders at The Geysers to monitor microearthquakes. With the dense network of 100 inexpensive seismic recorders, they will be able to improve the resolution of seismic imaging sufficient to track fluid movement as it moves through the network of fractures that intersect the injection wells. "Similar to what is done in medical ultrasound tomography with sound waves, we will record seismic waves—both compressional waves and shear waves—from which we can extract information about rock properties, fluid properties, and changes in the subsurface stresses," Nihei said. "We think these images will allow us to get a clearer picture of where fluids are going and how stresses in the rock are changing in time and space between the injection wells and production wells." Having a better understanding of fluid flow in fractured geothermal reservoirs would be a big benefit for well placement as well as cost-effective operation. "If they can increase the likelihood getting a productive well every time they drill, it would be huge," said Hutchings. "More than 10 percent of California's total renewable energy capacity comes from geothermal, so the potential impact of this technology is exciting." In the second project, led by Berkeley Lab scientist Jonny Rutqvist, the goal is to enable the conversion of geothermal production from baseload or steady production to flexible or variable mode. Flexible-mode geothermal production could then be used as a supplement to intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, which are not available around the clock, thus significantly reducing the costs of storing that energy. The technical challenges are considerable since grid demands may require rapid changes, such as reducing production by half within tens of minutes and then restoring full production after a few hours. Such changes could lead to mechanical fatigue, damage to well components, corrosion, and mineral deposition in the wells. "A better understanding of the impacts of flexible-mode production on the reservoir-wellbore system is needed to assure safe and sustainable production," said Rutqvist. Berkeley Lab will adapt a suite of their modeling tools for wellbore and geothermal reservoir integrity, including T2WELL, which models fluid flow and heat transfer in wells; and TOUGHREACT, which simulates scaling and corrosion. These tools will be integrated with geomechanical tools into an improved thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) model to address the specific problems. "This will provide the necessary tools for investigating all the challenges related to flexible-mode production and predict short- and long-term impacts," Rutqvist said. "The advantages to California are many, including greater grid reliability, increased safety, and lower greenhouse gas emissions." Explore further: Cracking under pressure is no problem for high strength self-healing cement