PubMed | Georgia College & State University, University of Minnesota, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center and Catholic University of America
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2014
Recent research suggests that mindfulness benefits emotion regulation and smoking cessation. However, the mechanisms by which mindfulness affects emotional and behavioral functioning are unclear. One potential mechanism, lower affective volatility, has not been empirically tested during smoking cessation. This study examined longitudinal associations among mindfulness and emotional responding over the course of smoking cessation treatment among predominantly low-socioeconomic status (SES) African American smokers, who are at high risk for relapse to smoking and tobacco-related health disparities. Participants (N = 399, 51% female, mean age = 42, 48% with annual income <$10,000) completed a baseline measure of trait mindfulness. Negative affect, positive affect, and depressive symptoms were assessed at five time points during smoking cessation treatment (up to 31 days postquit). Volatility indices were calculated to quantify within-person instability of emotional symptoms over time. Over and above demographic characteristics, nicotine dependence, and abstinence status, greater baseline trait mindfulness predicted lower volatility of negative affect and depressive symptoms surrounding the quit attempt and up to 1 month postquit, ps < 0.05. Although volatility did not mediate the association between greater mindfulness and smoking cessation, these results are the first to show that mindfulness is linked to lower affective volatility (or greater stability) of negative emotions during the course of smoking cessation. The present study suggests that mindfulness is linked to greater emotional stability and augments the study of mindfulness in diverse populations. Future studies should examine the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on volatility and whether lower volatility explains effects of mindfulness-based treatments on smoking cessation.
PubMed | Georgia College & State University, University of Houston, University of Minnesota and Catholic University of America
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mindfulness | Year: 2015
Mindfulness-based strategies have received empirical support for improving coping with stress and reducing alcohol use. The present study presents a moderated mediation model to explain how mindfulness might promote healthier drinking patterns. This model posits that mindfulness reduces perceived stress, leading to less alcohol use, and also weakens the linkage between stress and alcohol use. African American smokers (
PubMed | Georgia College & State University, Duke University and Georgia State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Minnesota journal of law, science & technology | Year: 2014
Researchers often require and collect sensitive information about individuals to answer important scientific questions that impact individual health and well-being and the public health. Researchers recognize they have a duty to maintain the confidentiality of the data they collect and typically make promises, which are documented in the consent form. The legal interests of others, however, can threaten researchers promises of confidentiality, if they seek access to the data through subpoena. Certificates of Confidentiality (Certificates), authorized by federal statute, are an important tool for protecting individually identifiable sensitive research data from compelled disclosure. However, questions persist in the research community about the strength of Certificate protections, and the evidence on which to judge the strength is scant. In this article, we address those questions through a careful examination of the legislation and regulations concerning Certificates and the reported and unreported cases we have identified through our legal research and interviews with legal counsel about their experiences with Certificates. We also analyze other statutes that protect research data to compare them to the Certificates protections, and we review other legal strategies available for protecting research data. Based on our analysis, we conclude with recommendations for how to strengthen protection of sensitive research data.
PubMed | Georgia College & State University, University of North Georgia, Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Rohilkhand University, Duke University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics | Year: 2015
The federal Certificate of Confidentiality plays an important role in research on sensitive topics by authorizing researchers to refuse to disclose identifiable research data in response to subpoenas in any legal setting. However, there is little known about how effective Certificates are in practice. This article draws on our legal and empirical research on this topic to fill this information gap. It includes a description of the purpose of Certificates, their legislative and regulatory history, and a summary of the few reported and unreported cases that have dealt with Certificates. In addition, we outline other statutory confidentiality protections, compare them to the Certificates protections, and analyze some of the vulnerabilities of a Certificates protections. This analysis allows us to make specific recommendations for strengthening the protections afforded to research data.
Apergis N.,Northumbria University |
Ewing B.T.,Department of Energy, United Kingdom |
Payne J.E.,Georgia College & State University
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects | Year: 2016
Understanding the performance of new-well oil production per rig over time and across oil-producing regions serves as an important indicator of current and future production capabilities. As such, this study examines the degree of persistence in response to shocks in new-well production per rig for the six major US oil-producing regions using modified panel ratio tests. The results indicate the instability of new-well production per rig as the degree of persistence changes over time. For companies engaged in the exploration and production of oil, the results highlight the price-taking nature of the industry that is heavily dependent on both physical and financial capital to expand and operate. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Verkiel S.E.,Georgia College & State University |
Verkiel S.E.,University of Georgia
Journal of Medical Ethics | Year: 2016
Moral enhancement can be an attractive proposal, but contrary to cognitive enhancement, it is hard to define what kind of intervention would constitute moral enhancement. In an ongoing debate about the subject, Douglas argued that biomedically decreasing countermoral emotions would do so and would be morally permissible in particular cases. Harris disagreed, and one of his arguments is that failing to address the intellectual aspects of moral decisions-and simply targeting countermoral emotions-would effectively undermine our freedom by reducing our options to act immorally. In a consequent paper, Douglas defended his position. In this paper, I examine Douglas' response to Harris concern about the loss of freedom with biomedical moral enhancement. I argue that Douglas' framework for moral reasoning on which he bases his argument that biomedical intervention is in some cases permissible lacks soundness, and that it apparently undermines morality. Harris insists that morality requires freedom of choice, yet Douglas and Harris have different conceptions of freedom of choice. Douglas' focus on quantity in his defence does not engage with Harris focus on quality of choice. Thus, the kind of biomedical enhancement that Douglas defends is not moral-nor immoral-but amoral enhancement. © 2016 by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & Institute of Medical Ethics.
Pigg K.B.,Arizona State University |
Devore M.L.,Georgia College & State University
Botany | Year: 2016
The Princeton chert is one of the most completely studied permineralized floras of the Paleogene. Remains of over 30 plant taxa have been described in detail, along with a diverse assemblage of fungi that document a variety of ecological interactions with plants. As a flora of the Okanagan Highlands, the Princeton chert plants are an assemblage of higher elevation taxa of the latest early to earliest middle Eocene, with some components similar to those in the related compression floras. However, like the well-known floras of Clarno, Appian Way, the London Clay, and Messel, the Princeton chert provides an additional dimension of internal structure. In the present study, we outline the history of Princeton chert plant research, starting with Boneham and others, and extending into studies by Stockey and her students and colleagues. These studies were undertaken primarily at the University of Alberta, Edmonton. We then re-examine the individual elements of the Princeton chert flora, using the framework of the currently recognized Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG III) phylogeny and in light of recent fossil discoveries. We hope that this update will bring to mind new aspects of the significance of the Princeton chert flora to Paleogene paleobiology, biogeography, and plant evolution. © 2016, Canadian Science Publishing. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Georgia College & State University
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Journal of geriatric physical therapy (2001) | Year: 2012
Lower limb amputation in older adults has a significant impact on balance, gait, and cardiovascular fitness, resulting in diminished community participation. The purpose of this case study was to describe the effects of a balance training program utilizing the Nintendo Wii Fit (Nintendo of America, Inc, Redmond, Washington) balance board and body-weight supported gait training on aerobic capacity, balance, gait, and fear of falling in two persons with transfemoral amputation.Participant A, a 62 year-old male 32 months post traumatic transfemoral amputation, reported fear of falling and restrictions in community activity. Participant B, a 58 year-old male 9 years post transfemoral amputation, reported limited energy and balance deficits during advanced gait activities.6-weeks, 2 supervised sessions per week included 20 minutes of Nintendo Wii Fit Balance gaming and 20 minutes of gait training using Body Weight Support.Measures included oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), economy of movement, dynamic balance (Biodex platform system), Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, and spatial-temporal parameters of gait (GAITRite). Both participants demonstrated improvement in dynamic balance, balance confidence, economy of movement, and spatial-temporal parameters of gait. Participant A reduced the need for an assistive device during community ambulation. Participant B improved his aerobic capacity, indicated by an increase in OUES.This case study illustrated that the use of Nintendo Wii Fit training and Body Weight Support were effective interventions to achieve functional goals for improving balance confidence, reducing use of assistive devices, and increasing energy efficiency when ambulating with a transfemoral prosthesis.
PubMed | Georgia College & State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners | Year: 2016
College years are a time young adults examine high-risk sexual behaviors, increasing their risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Fraternity/sorority membership has been identified as one factor contributing to increased risky sexual behavior in college students. This study measured the effectiveness of an educational intervention targeting STD prevention in fraternity and sorority members, and examined relationships between STD knowledge, attitudes, and demographics.A descriptive, correlational design was used. Pre- and posttest data were collected from fraternity and sorority members (N = 132). Instruments measured demographic characteristics, STD knowledge, and attitudes toward safe sex behaviors.There was a significant increase in STD knowledge from baseline (M = 13.03, SD = 6.5) to 1 week (M = 20.27, SD = 4.9) t (131) = -13.53, p = .000. Males were more likely to report attitudes toward risky sexual behavior rs(132) = .323, p = .000, and as knowledge increased, attitudes became more favorable to safe sex behaviors (pre-STD knowledge and preintervention attitudes, r(132) = -.249, p = .004; post-STD knowledge and postintervention attitudes, rs(132) = -.307, p = .000).Results support that brief STD educational interventions can increase STD knowledge. College health centers must aim to provide sexual health education to all students at every visit.
PubMed | Georgia College & State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The journal of sexual medicine | Year: 2015
Pubic hair grooming and removal are common behaviors among men and women. However, little is known about the reasons for grooming, preferred pubic hairstyle of sexual partners, and symptoms associated with regular grooming.This study aims to assess pubic hair removal/grooming practices, pubic hairstyle preferences, and genital outcomes associated with pubic hair removal among men and women in a college sample.Data were gathered from 1,110 participants (671 women and 439 men) at a large public Midwestern university and a small Southern public university.Items assessed demographics, pubic hair grooming and removal practices in the past 4 weeks, reasons for pubic hair status, preference for pubic hairstyle of sexual partners, and symptoms associated with removal and grooming.Most (95%) participants had removed their pubic hair on at least one occasion in the past 4 weeks with shaving being the most commonly reported hair removal technique by women (82%) and men (49%). Women were significantly more likely to report their typical status as hair-free (50% vs. 19%; (2)=165.528, P<0.001) and men were significantly more likely to prefer a hair-free sexual partner (60% vs. 24%; (2)=211.712, P<0.001). Genital itching was experienced on at least one occasion by 80.3% of pubic hair groomers and was the most commonly reported side effect.Genital grooming and pubic hair removal are common practices among both men and women of college-age. Women are likely to report stronger associations with feelings of cleanliness, comfort, sex appeal, social norms of their peer group, and affordability as reasons for their chosen pubic hair style. Women also report more experiences with genital side effects of pubic hair removal, an expected result as women are removing pubic hair more frequently and more completely than their male counterparts.