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Huang H.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Lin T.,Sun Yat Sen University | Wang T.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 3 more authors.
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2011

Cardiorenal syndromes were defined and classified recently, but the mechanism of chronic renocardiac syndrome remains disputed. Theories about chronic renocardiac syndrome cannot offer a convincing explanation for it. As a result, the current therapies of chronic renocardiac syndrome do not contribute to a satisfied prognosis. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, the products of arachidonic acid metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes, play an important role in the maintenance of renal hemodynamics, and regulation of renal, cardiac, and vascular function with antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory properties. It is well documented that down-regulation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids might be involved in alterations in various pathophysiological states, including hypertension, uremia and hepatorenal syndrome. Likewise, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids were reduced in heart failure and renal dysfunction. This leads to the proposed hypothesis that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids down-regulation may be the novel mechanism of chronic renocardiac syndrome. These findings suggest that manipulation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acid levels could be a novel pharmacological therapy strategy for chronic renocardiac syndrome. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Tingen M.S.,Health Discovery | Tingen M.S.,Georgia Regents University | Andrews J.O.,Center for Community Health Partnerships | Heath J.,University of Virginia | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Health Promotion | Year: 2013

Purpose. This study evaluated similarities and differences of enrollment rates using two different recruitment strategies for a tobacco control trial in rural and urban African-American (AA) elementary school families. Design. A comparative study, nested within a larger randomized controlled trial, was used to test the effectiveness of two recruitment approaches on enrollment rates in rural and urban AA families. Setting. The study was conducted in 14 Title 1 elementary schools in the southeastern United States: 7 rural and 7 urban. Subjects. There were 736 eligible AA families, and 332 (45%) completed informed consent and were enrolled into the study. Intervention. The Facilitate, Open and transparent communication, Shared benefits, Team and tailored, Educate bilaterally, and Relationships, realistic and rewards (FOSTER) approach guided the two recruitment strategies: (1) written informational packets provided to fourth graders to take home to parents; and (2) proactive, face-to-face family information sessions held at schools. Measures. Enrollment rates were based on responsiveness to the two recruitment strategies and completion of the informed consent process. Analysis. Chi-square, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel, and Breslow-Day tests were performed. Results. Higher enrollment rates occurred during the family session for both rural and urban families (100% rural, 93.6% urban; p = .0475) than informational packets alone (28.7% rural, 22% urban; p < .0001). Rural family enrollment rates were overall higher than urban rates regardless of recruitment strategy (52.0% rural vs. 39.6% urban; p = .0008). Conclusion. The findings suggest the FOSTER approach, although effective in both rural and urban settings, was more successful in recruiting rural families. Copyright © 2013 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc. Source


NeSmith E.G.,Georgia Regents University | Medeiros R.S.,Georgia Regents Medical Center | Ferdinand C.H.B.,Georgia Regents Medical Center | Hawkins M.L.,Georgia Regents Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Few interdisciplinary research groups include basic scientists, pharmacists, therapists, nutritionists, laboratory technicians, as well as trauma patients and families, in addition to clinicians. Increasing interprofessional diversity within scientific teams working to improve trauma care is a goal of national organizations and federal funding agencies such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This article describes the design, implementation, and outcomes of a Trauma Interdisciplinary Group for Research (TIGR) at a Level 1 trauma center as it relates to increasing research productivity, with specific examples excerpted from an ongoing NIH-funded study. METHODS: We used a pretest/posttest design with objectives aimed at measuring increases in research productivity following a targeted intervention. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis was used to develop the intervention, which included research skill-building activities, accomplished by adding multidisciplinary investigators to an existing NIH-funded project. The NIH project aimed to test the hypothesis that accelerated biologic aging from chronic stress increases baseline inflammation and reduces inflammatory response to trauma (projected n = 150). Pre-TIGR/post-TIGR data related to participant screening, recruitment, consent, and research processes were compared. Research productivity was measured through abstracts, publications, and investigator-initiated projects. RESULTS: Research products increased from 12 to 42 (approximately 400%). Research proposals for federal funding increased from 0 to 3, with success rate of 66%. Participant screenings for the NIH-funded study increased from 40 to 313. Consents increased from 14 to 70. Laboratory service fees were reduced from $300 per participant to $5 per participant. CONCLUSION: Adding diversity to our scientific team via TIGR was exponentially successful in (1) improving research productivity, (2) reducing research costs, and (3) increasing research products and mentoring activities that the team before TIGR had not entertained. The team is now well positioned to apply for more federally funded projects, and more trauma clinicians are considering research careers than before. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Liu G.,University of Groningen | Zhu H.,Georgia Prevention Institute | Dong Y.,Georgia Prevention Institute | Podolsky R.H.,University of Georgia | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies identified several common variants for obesity: rs9939609 in FTO, rs7566605 near INSIG2 and both rs17782313 and rs17700633 near the MC4R gene. This study aimed to assess the influence of these polymorphisms on development of adiposity in European- (EA) and African-American (AA) youth in two ongoing longitudinal studies including 986 and 606 participants with age ranges of 10-25.8 and 4.0-23.9 years, respectively. Individual growth curve modeling was conducted separately in the two studies. We tested the effect of the SNPs on levels and increase with age (i.e., slope) of weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and skinfolds from childhood to adulthood, and potential moderation by ethnicity or gender. Beta coefficients computed in the two studies were pooled using meta-analysis. Rs9939609 was associated with logtransformed levels of BMI (β = 0.021, P = 0.01), weight (β = 0.019, P = 0.04) and waist circumference (β = 0.012, P = 0.04). Rs17782313 was associated with triceps (β = 0.05, P = 0.02). Significant interactions of rs17700633 with gender were observed on subscapular-, suprailiac- and sum of skinfolds, with significant associations limited to males (P < 0.05). No significant interactions with ethnicity were found. Only one effect on the slope was observed, rs17700633 showed a significant interaction with age on triceps (β = 0.004, P = 0.04). In two longitudinal studies of EA and AA youth, we replicated the effect of FTO and common variants near MC4R on general and central adiposity. These variants did not affect the increase with age of adiposity from childhood to adulthood with one exception. Common variants for obesity identified in GWA studies have detectable but modest effects on growth curves for adiposity in EA and AA youth. © 2011 The Author(s). Source


Zhou H.,Georgia Prevention Institute | Lei X.,Georgia Prevention Institute | Benson T.,Georgia Prevention Institute | Mintz J.,Georgia Prevention Institute | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Lipid Research | Year: 2015

Mutations in BSCL2/SEIPIN cause Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2), but the mechanisms whereby Bscl2 regulates adipose tissue function are unclear. Here, we generated adipose tissue (mature) Bscl2 knockout (Ad-mKO) mice, in which Bscl2 was specifically ablated in adipocytes of adult animals, to investigate the impact of acquired Bscl2 deletion on adipose tissue function and energy balance. Ad-mKO mice displayed reduced adiposity and were protected against high fat dietinduced obesity, but not insulin resistance or hepatic steatosis. Gene expression profiling and biochemical assays revealed increased lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue , as well as browning of WAT, owing to induction of cAMP/protein kinase A signaling upon Bscl2 deletion. Interestingly, Bscl2 deletion reduced food intake and downregulated adipose β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) expression. Impaired ADRB3 signaling partially offsets upregulated browning-induced energy expenditure and thermogenesis in Ad-mKO mice housed at ambient temperature. However, this counterregulatory response was abrogated under thermoneutral conditions, resulting in even greater body mass loss in AdmKO mice. These findings suggest that Bscl2 regulates adipocyte lipolysis and β-adrenergic signaling to produce complex effects on adipose tissues and whole-body energy balance. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

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