Georgia National Center for Disease Control and Public Health

Tbilisi, Georgia

Georgia National Center for Disease Control and Public Health

Tbilisi, Georgia
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Komakhidze T.,Georgia National Center for Disease Control and Public Health | Hoestlandt C.,Agence de Medecine Preventive AMP | Dolakidze T.,Georgia National Center for Disease Control and Public Health | Shakhnazarova M.,Georgia National Center for Disease Control and Public Health | And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2015

Objective: Financial support from the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) to introduce the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) into the routine childhood immunization schedule in Georgia is ending in 2015. As a result, the Interagency Coordination Committee (ICC) decided to carry out a cost-effectiveness analysis to gather additional evidence to advocate for an appropriate evidence-based decision after GAVI support is over. The study also aimed to strengthen national capacity to conduct cost-effectiveness studies, and to introduce economic evaluations into Georgia's decision-making process. Methodology: A multidisciplinary team of national experts led by a member of the ICC carried out the analysis that compared two scenarios: introducing PCV10 vs no vaccination. The TRIVAC model was used to evaluate 10 cohorts of children over the period 2014-2023. National data was used to inform demographics, disease burden, vaccine coverage, health service utilization, and costs. Evidence from clinical trials and the scientific literature was used to estimate the impact of the vaccine. A 3. +. 0 schedule and a vaccine price increasing to US$ 3.50 per dose was assumed for the base-case scenario. Alternative univariate and multivariate scenarios were evaluated. Results: Over the 10-year period, PCV10 was estimated to prevent 7170 (8288 undiscounted) outpatient visits due to all-cause acute otitis media, 5325 (6154 undiscounted) admissions due to all-cause pneumonia, 87 (100 undiscounted) admissions due to pneumococcal meningitis, and 508 (588 undiscounted) admissions due to pneumococcal non-pneumonia and non-meningitis (NPNM). In addition, the vaccine was estimated to prevent 41 (48 undiscounted) deaths. This is equivalent to approximately 5 deaths and 700 admissions prevented each year in Georgia. Over the 10-year period, PCV10 would cost the government approximately US$ 4.4 million ($440,000 per year). However, about half of this would be offset by the treatment costs prevented. The discounted cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated to be US$ 1599 per DALY averted with scenarios ranging from US$ 286 to US$ 7787. Discussion: This study led to better multi-sectoral collaboration and improved national capacity to perform economic evaluations. Routine infant vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae would be highly cost-effective in Georgia. The decision to introduce PCV10 was already made some time before the study was initiated but it provided important economic evidence in support of that decision. There are several uncertainties around many of the parameters used, but a multivariate scenario analysis with several conservative assumptions (including no herd effect in older individuals) shows that this recommendation is robust. This study supports the decision to introduce PCV10 in Georgia. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Georgia National Center for Disease Control and Public Health, Agence de Medecine Preventive AMP, National Statistics Office of Georgia Geostat and Georgia Ministry of Labor
Type: | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2015

Financial support from the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) to introduce the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) into the routine childhood immunization schedule in Georgia is ending in 2015. As a result, the Interagency Coordination Committee (ICC) decided to carry out a cost-effectiveness analysis to gather additional evidence to advocate for an appropriate evidence-based decision after GAVI support is over. The study also aimed to strengthen national capacity to conduct cost-effectiveness studies, and to introduce economic evaluations into Georgias decision-making process.A multidisciplinary team of national experts led by a member of the ICC carried out the analysis that compared two scenarios: introducing PCV10 vs no vaccination. The TRIVAC model was used to evaluate 10 cohorts of children over the period 2014-2023. National data was used to inform demographics, disease burden, vaccine coverage, health service utilization, and costs. Evidence from clinical trials and the scientific literature was used to estimate the impact of the vaccine. A 3+0 schedule and a vaccine price increasing to US$ 3.50 per dose was assumed for the base-case scenario. Alternative univariate and multivariate scenarios were evaluated.Over the 10-year period, PCV10 was estimated to prevent 7170 (8288 undiscounted) outpatient visits due to all-cause acute otitis media, 5325 (6154 undiscounted) admissions due to all-cause pneumonia, 87 (100 undiscounted) admissions due to pneumococcal meningitis, and 508 (588 undiscounted) admissions due to pneumococcal non-pneumonia and non-meningitis (NPNM). In addition, the vaccine was estimated to prevent 41 (48 undiscounted) deaths. This is equivalent to approximately 5 deaths and 700 admissions prevented each year in Georgia. Over the 10-year period, PCV10 would cost the government approximately US$ 4.4 million ($440,000 per year). However, about half of this would be offset by the treatment costs prevented. The discounted cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated to be US$ 1599 per DALY averted with scenarios ranging from US$ 286 to US$ 7787.This study led to better multi-sectoral collaboration and improved national capacity to perform economic evaluations. Routine infant vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae would be highly cost-effective in Georgia. The decision to introduce PCV10 was already made some time before the study was initiated but it provided important economic evidence in support of that decision. There are several uncertainties around many of the parameters used, but a multivariate scenario analysis with several conservative assumptions (including no herd effect in older individuals) shows that this recommendation is robust. This study supports the decision to introduce PCV10 in Georgia.


Navdarashvili A.,Georgia National Center for Disease Control and Public Health | Doker T.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Geleishvili M.,South Caucasus Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program | Haberling D.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 10 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2016

Human anthrax cases reported in the country of Georgia increased 75% from 2011 (n = 81) to 2012 (n = 142). This increase prompted a case-control investigation using 67 culture- or PCR-confirmed cases and 134 controls matched by residence and gender to investigate risk factor(s) for infection during the month before case onset. Independent predictors most strongly associated with disease in the multivariable modelling were slaughtering animals [odds ratio (OR) 7 3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2 9-18 1, P < 0 001] and disposing of dead animals (OR 13 6, 95% CI 1 5-119 8, P = 0 02). Participants owning or working with livestock (n = 131) were additionally interviewed about livestock management practices during the previous 6 months: 53 (44%) of 121 respondents vaccinated livestock against anthrax; 19 (16%) of 116 moved livestock >1 km; 15 (12%) of 125 had sick livestock; and 11 (9%) of 128 respondents reported finding dead livestock. We recommend joint public health and veterinary anthrax case investigations to identify areas of increased risk for livestock anthrax outbreaks, annual anthrax vaccination of livestock in those areas, and public awareness education. © Cambridge University Press 2015.


PubMed | Georgia National Center for Disease Control and Public Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and South Caucasus Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Epidemiology and infection | Year: 2015

Human anthrax cases reported in the country of Georgia increased 75% from 2011 (n = 81) to 2012 (n = 142). This increase prompted a case-control investigation using 67 culture- or PCR-confirmed cases and 134 controls matched by residence and gender to investigate risk factor(s) for infection during the month before case onset. Independent predictors most strongly associated with disease in the multivariable modelling were slaughtering animals [odds ratio (OR) 73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 29-181, P 1 km; 15 (12%) of 125 had sick livestock; and 11 (9%) of 128 respondents reported finding dead livestock. We recommend joint public health and veterinary anthrax case investigations to identify areas of increased risk for livestock anthrax outbreaks, annual anthrax vaccination of livestock in those areas, and public awareness education.

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