Atlanta, GA, United States

Georgia Institute of Technology

www.gatech.edu
Atlanta, GA, United States

The Georgia Institute of Technology is a public research university in Atlanta, Georgia, in the United States. It is a part of the University System of Georgia and has satellite campuses in Savannah, Georgia; Metz, France; Athlone, Ireland; Shanghai, China; and Singapore.The educational institution was founded in 1885 as the Georgia School of Technology as part of Reconstruction plans to build an industrial economy in the post-Civil War Southern United States. Initially, it offered only a degree in mechanical engineering. By 1901, its curriculum had expanded to include electrical, civil, and chemical engineering. In 1948, the school changed its name to reflect its evolution from a trade school to a larger and more capable technical institute and research university.Today, Georgia Tech is organized into six colleges and contains about 31 departments/units, with emphasis on science and technology. It is well recognized for its degree programs in engineering, computing, business administration, the science, architecture, and liberal arts.Georgia Tech's main campus occupies part of Midtown Atlanta, bordered by 10th Street to the north and by North Avenue to the south, placing it well in sight of the Atlanta skyline. In 1996, the campus was the site of the athletes' village and a venue for a number of athletic events for the 1996 Summer Olympics. The construction of the Olympic village, along with subsequent gentrification of the surrounding areas, enhanced the campus.Student athletics, both organized and intramural, are a part of student and alumni life. The school's intercollegiate competitive sports teams, the four-time football national champion Yellow Jackets, and the nationally recognized fight song "Ramblin' Wreck from Georgia Tech", have helped keep Georgia Tech in the national spotlight. Georgia Tech fields eight men's and seven women's teams that compete in the NCAA Division I athletics and the Football Bowl Subdivision. Georgia Tech is a member of the Coastal Division in the Atlantic Coast Conference. Wikipedia.

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Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Mechanics of Materials and Str | Award Amount: 307.03K | Year: 2015

Additive manufacturing, often called 3D printing, is poised to revolutionize manufacturing. Its transformation into a manufacturing platform requires the ability to reliably create shape as well as desirable properties. Currently there is little understanding on how the mechanical properties of 3D printed parts relate to the printing process. This award supports fundamental research on mechanics of the layer-by-layer photopolymerization process common to many 3D printing system. It provides knowledge on how mechanical properties of the printed materials emerge from the printing process and how distortions occur. The knowledge gained provides solutions to the selection of printing parameters that yield parts with desirable properties. Such knowledge will enhance the use of photopolymerization based additive manufacturing for a wide variety of applications in healthcare, biomedical, aerospace, and automotive industries. This research involves several disciplines including mechanics, physics, chemistry, manufacturing, and materials science. The associated activities include underrepresented groups in the multidisciplinary research.

In photopolymerization based additive manufacturing there exist strong interactions of optical absorption, chemical reaction, species diffusion, phase change and volume shrinkage. Consequently, the layered deposition processes result in a material with dramatically different mechanical properties than the same polymer processed in bulk. This award supports research to investigate the relationship between print parameters and resulting product characteristics. The outcomes will bridge the knowledge gap between the printing process and the geometry and properties of the printed part. The research team will perform experiments to systematically investigate mechanical properties of the material within the printed layers and of the interfaces. The experimental observation will facilitate the establishment of theories and computational models. These models are defined in the context of continuum mechanics considering not only stress and strain but also the printing conditions and chemical processes. The computational models will be used to conduct parametric study to identify optimized printing parameters.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Design of Eng Materials (DEMS) | Award Amount: 265.16K | Year: 2015

This award supports research in establishing a design methodology for 3D printed active composites. In these materials constituents interact such that an object made of the composite alters its shape upon an external stimulus, such as a temperature change. With a 3D printing process composites with complex internal layouts can be manufactured. The composite is printed as an initially flat sheet which takes on a 3D shape after thermo-mechanical treatment, and deforms into yet another 3D shape upon activation. 3D printed active composites open the door for new solutions to a broad class of engineering problems in healthcare, biomedical, aerospace, and automotive applications. For example, active composites would enable novel soft surgical robots whose initial shape is suited for insertion into the human body and which are then deployed into a desired shape to assist a surgical procedure. Currently there exist no tools for systematically designing these composites. This research involves several disciplines, including mathematics, mechanics, and computer science. This setting will provide a stimulating environment for students who will participate in this project and broaden participation of underrepresented groups in research. Outreach activities will bring the excitement of 3D printing into K-12 classrooms.

The active composite consists of glassy polymers embedded in an elastomeric matrix. The temperature dependence of the mechanical properties of glassy polymers creates a shape polymer effect. The properties of the polymer phases depend on complex processing conditions during 3D printing. The constitutive response will be described as temperature-dependent and anisotropic nonlinear viscoelastic. Experiments on the thermomechanical response will support the constitutive model development. The design methodology will integrate the nonlinear material models into a multi-material topology optimization approach. The location and shape of glassy polymer inclusions as well as parameters defining the programming loads will be optimized simultaneously. Consequently, the composite assumes a set of target shapes due to thermo-mechanical treatment and upon activation. The geometry of the material interfaces will be described by a level set method. The response of the printed composite objects will be predicted by a generalized formulation of the extended finite element method. To account for manufacturing constraints, such as limitations in printer resolution, constraints for controlling the minimum feature size in 3D material layouts will be developed. The optimization problem will be solved by a gradient-based algorithm, computing the gradients of objective and design constrains by the adjoint method. Experiments will be employed for validation of the design methodology.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: INDUSTRY/UNIV COOP RES CENTERS | Award Amount: 15.00K | Year: 2017

Additive manufacturing technologies are widely used in a variety of industries including consumer products, automotive, medical, aerospace, and machinery. The additive manufacturing industry exceeds $5 billion in 2015 and is expected to top $20 billion within the next five years. It has become an extremely competitive area of research in countries around the world. To ensure US global leadership in this emerging field originated from the US, academic partners (currently including Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), University of Connecticut (UConn), and University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML)) have come together to create the Center for Science of Heterogeneous Additive Printing of 3D Materials (SHAP 3D ). SHAP 3D will serve the diverse interests of industry, government, and academia by addressing fundamental research challenges to meet the commercial needs of industry for 3D printing of heterogeneous materials. SHAP 3D will develop the critical and necessary insight into fundamental processing-structure-property relationships to predict and control the integration of diverse materials for 3D printing. The work of SHAP 3D will be critical as the industry adopts 3D printing for product prototyping, tooling, and higher volume manufacturing with three specific economic outcomes. First, the Center will pursue higher performance materials and composites that enable diverse and lighter weight products to minimize total life cycle costs and environmental footprint. Second, in order to minimize processing costs, the Center will explore more optimal and parallel processes to more quickly print products with higher resolution. Third, SHAP 3D will investigate interfacial physics and design concepts for integrating dissimilar materials to facilitate multi-functional components/products, broaden the number of 3D printed applications, and increase market size. Active collaboration with industry partners will ensure relevance to education and training of the future workforce to expedite the adoption and integration of 3D printing methods into manufacturing processes. The three institutions will create a scholarship fund specifically for the recruitment of diverse graduate students. A portion of this scholarship fund will be directed to underrepresented students from minority serving institutions, including community colleges. Educational programs associated with this IUCRC target undergraduate and graduate students at GT and local community colleges, K-12 students, and industry professionals. The GT site will work closely with GT?s Center for Engineering Education and Diversity (CEED) graduate fellow program to enhance diversity. Integration of materials research and education will be developed in collaboration with partners, such as Institute of Materials, GT Manufacturing Institute, and GT Polymer Network. The GT site will also work closely with the Research Experience for Student Veterans in Advanced Manufacturing and Entrepreneurship (REVAMP) REU site to train undergraduate students in fundamental principles of advanced manufacturing, with a focus on veterans and minority students. In addition, the GT site will disseminate the research results to K6-12 students through school teachers in metro Atlanta area by NSF research experience for teacher (RET) program.

The SHAP 3D Center will perform research to understand the synthesis, properties, and processing of heterogeneous materials for integration into complex, additively manufactured products. The work SHAP 3D envisions would encompass many different additive printing methods, such as fused deposition modeling (FDM), selective laser sintering (SLS), stereolithography (SLA), poly/ink jet, and other additive approaches. The Center will perform fundamental material modeling and processing research to establish and translate validated materials and processes to students and practitioners. The proposed center will enable: (i) the rational design and creation of new material feedstocks and, (ii) the understanding of material properties, protocols, and design rules that must be characterized and developed to optimize the process and predict the properties of products and parts created from multiple polymer materials (e.g., different constituent materials, fillers/additives, and interfaces). GT has extensive expertise and longstanding experience in manufacturing, materials, electronics design and packaging, device fabrication and characterization, and biomedicine. GT will draw on a diverse team of faculty from Mechanical, Materials, Industrial, Chemical, Electrical Engineering Schools. Faculty members from this team will make contributions to the next generation of 3D printed functional multi-materials for functional products with research focused on materials, processes, design, and simulation.

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