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Atlanta, GA, United States

Ogbuanu C.,Georgia community health
Maternal and child health journal | Year: 2012

We examined factors associated with children's access to quality health care, a major concern in Georgia, identified through the 2010 Title V Needs Assessment. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were merged with the 2008 Area Resource File and Health Resources and Services Administration medically underserved area variable, and restricted to Georgia children ages 4-17 years (N = 1,397). The study outcome, access to quality health care was derived from access to care (timely utilization of preventive medical care in the previous 12 months) and quality of care (compassionate/culturally effective/family-centered care). Andersen's behavioral model of health services utilization guided independent variable selection. Analyses included Chi-square tests and multinomial logit regressions. In our study population, 32.8 % reported access to higher quality care, 24.8 % reported access to moderate quality care, 22.8 % reported access to lower quality care, and 19.6 % reported having no access. Factors positively associated with having access to higher/moderate versus lower quality care include having a usual source of care (USC) (adjusted odds ratio, AOR:3.27; 95 % confidence interval, 95 % CI 1.15-9.26), and special health care needs (AOR:2.68; 95 % CI 1.42-5.05). Lower odds of access to higher/moderate versus lower quality care were observed for non-Hispanic Black (AOR:0.31; 95 % CI 0.18-0.53) and Hispanic (AOR:0.20; 95 % CI 0.08-0.50) children compared with non-Hispanic White children and for children with all other forms of insurance coverage compared with children with continuous-adequate-private insurance. Ensuring that children have continuous, adequate insurance coverage and a USC may positively affect their access to quality health care in Georgia. Source

Brennan L.K.,Transtria LLC | Brownson R.C.,Washington University in St. Louis | Kelly C.,University of Colorado at Colorado Springs | Ivey M.K.,Georgia community health | Leviton L.C.,Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: From 2003 to 2008, a total of 25 cross-sector, multidisciplinary community partnerships funded through the Active Living by Design (ALbD) national program designed, planned, and implemented policy and environmental changes, with complementary programs and promotions. Purpose: This paper describes the use of concept mapping methods to gain insights into promising active living intervention strategies based on the collective experience of community representatives implementing ALbD initiatives. Methods: Using Concept Systems software, community representatives (n=43) anonymously generated actions and changes in their communities to support active living (183 original statements, 79 condensed statements). Next, respondents (n=26, from 23 partnerships) sorted the 79 statements into self-created categories, or active living intervention approaches. Respondents then rated statements based on their perceptions of the most important strategies for creating community changes (n=25, from 22 partnerships) and increasing community rates of physical activity (n=23, from 20 partnerships). Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to describe data patterns. Results: ALbD community partnerships identified three active living intervention approaches with the greatest perceived importance to create community change and increase population levels of physical activity: changes to the built and natural environment, partnership and collaboration efforts, and land-use and transportation policies. The relative importance of intervention approaches varied according to subgroups of partnerships working with different populations. Conclusions: Decision makers, practitioners, and community residents can incorporate what has been learned from the 25 community partnerships to prioritize active living policy, physical project, promotional, and programmatic strategies for work in different populations and settings. © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Source

Whitman S.,Sinai Urban Health Institute | Ansell D.,Rush University Medical Center | Orsi J.,Womens Interagency HIV Study | Francois T.,Georgia community health
Journal of Community Health | Year: 2011

Black women die of breast cancer at a much higher rate than white women. Recent studies have suggested that this racial disparity might be even greater in Chicago than the country as a whole. When data describing this racial disparity are presented they are sometimes attributed in part to racial differences in tumor biology. Vital records data were employed to calculate age-adjusted breast cancer mortality rates for women in Chicago, New York City and the United States from 1980-2005. Race-specific rate ratios were used to measure the disparity in breast cancer mortality. Breast cancer mortality rates by race are the main outcome. In all three geographies the rate ratios were approximately equal in 1980 and stayed that way until the early 1990s, when the white rates started to decline while the black rates remained rather constant. By 2005 the black:white rate ratio was 1.36 in NYC, 1.38 in the US, and 1.98 in Chicago. In any number of ways these data are inconsistent with the notion that the disparity in black:white breast cancer mortality rates is a function of differential biology. Three societal hypotheses are posited that may explain this disparity. All three are actionable, beginning today. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Fan A.Z.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Li Y.,Georgia community health | Elam-Evans L.D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Balluz L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Clinical Epidemiology | Year: 2013

Context and objective: Epidemiological studies show the apparent link between excessive alcohol consumption and hypertension. However, the association between alcohol intake and blood pressure among non-hypertensive individuals is scarcely examined. Methods: This analysis included participants in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who were aged 20 to 84 years without a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, hypertension or pregnancy, whose systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) was lower than 140/90 mmHg, who were not on antihypertensive medication, and who consumed 12 drinks or more during the past 12 months (N = 3957). Average drinking volume (average alcohol intake per day), usual drinking quantity (drinks per day when drinking) and frequency of binge drinking were used to predict SBP/DBP. Covariates included age, gender, race/ethnicity, education level, smoking status, average physical activity level, and daily hours spent on TV/ video/computer. Results: Drinking volume was directly associated with higher SBP in a linear dependent manner (an increment of 10 g of alcohol per day increased average SBP by 1 mmHg among both men and women). Drinking above the US Dietary Guidelines (men more than two drinks and women more than one drink per drinking day) was associated with higher SBP. Binge drinking was associated with both higher SBP and higher DBP. Average intake greater than two drinks per day was particularly associated with higher DBP among women (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: This analysis from a population-based survey indicates a direct association between higher alcohol consumption and a higher prevalence of prehypertension among non-hypertensive drinkers. © 2013 Fan et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. Source

Vaaler M.L.,University of Texas at Austin | Castrucci B.C.,Georgia community health
Women's Health Issues | Year: 2012

Background: Despite the elevated rates of teen and unplanned pregnancies across the United States, long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) remain a less utilized birth control method. The present study investigated family planning providers' attitudes and considerations when recommending family planning methods and LARCs to clients. Additionally, this study explored whether urban-rural differences exist in providers' attitudes toward LARCs and in clients' use of LARCs. Methods: Data were collected using an online survey of family planning providers at Title X clinics in Texas. Survey data was linked to family planning client data from the Family Planning Annual Report (2008). Results: Findings indicated that, although providers were aware of the advantages of LARCs, clients' LARC use remains infrequent. Providers reported that the benefits of hormone implants include their effectiveness for 3 years and that they are an option for women who cannot take estrogen-based birth control. Providers acknowledged the benefits of several types of LARCs; however, urban providers were more likely to acknowledge the benefits of hormone implants compared with their rural counterparts. Results also indicated barriers to recommending LARCs, such as providers' misinformation about LARCs and their caution in recommending LARCs to adolescents. However, findings also indicated providers lack training in LARC insertion, specifically among those practicing in rural areas. Conclusions: In light of the effectiveness and longevity of LARCs, teenagers and clients living in rural areas are ideal LARC candidates. Increased training among family planning providers, especially for those practicing in rural areas, may increase their recommendations of LARCs to clients. © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Source

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