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Washington, DC, United States

Fretts A.M.,University of Washington | Howard B.V.,MedStar Research Institute | Howard B.V.,Georgetown and Howard Universities | Mcknight B.,University of Washington | And 6 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE - To examine the association of objectively measured participation in low levels of physical activity with incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The study population included participants free of diabetes and cardiovascular disease at baseline (n = 1,826) who participated in a follow-up examination. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association of steps per day with incident diabetes. RESULTS - During 5 years of follow-up, 243 incident cases of diabetes were identified. When compared with participants in the lowest quartile of steps per day (<3,500 steps), participants in the upper three quartiles of steps per day had lower odds for diabetes, consistent with a threshold effect. Contrasting the three upper quartiles with the lowest quartile, the odds ratio of diabetes was 0.71 (95% CI 0.51-0.98). CONCLUSIONS - Modest levels of physical activity are associated with a lower risk of incident diabetes, compared with lower levels of activity. © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association. Source


Vicente G.V.,Eye Doctors of Washington | Bahri M.,Washington Hospital Center | Palafoutas J.J.,Georgetown University | Wang H.,MedStar Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of AAPOS | Year: 2012

Purpose: To compare the mydriatic efficacy of different numbers of eye drops for retinal examination of premature infants. Methods: This pilot study enrolled preterm infants born at <32 weeks' gestational age who were scheduled for retinopathy of prematurity screening examinations. In all study group assignments, the right (treatment reference group) eye received 3 eye drops per current neonatal intensive care unit protocol, whereas the left (test) eye was randomized at each examination to receive either: 0, 1, or 2 drops. Pupils were dilated with the use of a cyclopentolate 0.2% and phenylephrine 1% ophthalmic solution. Pupil size (in mm) was measured by a single examiner at 0 (baseline), 45, 90, and 120 minutes after instillation. Retinal examination occurred at the first opportunity to adequately visualize the peripheral retina. Comparison of the means was calculated using paired t test, t test, or analysis of variance, as appropriate. Results: A total of 64 eye examinations were performed on 15 enrolled infants (mean gestational age, 28.7 ± 2.6 weeks, 53% white; 40% male). No significant differences existed in mean pupil size between the 1-, 2- and 3-drop groups at baseline, 90 minutes, and 120 minutes. All 1-drop group eyes could be examined by 90 minutes. The 0-drop group maintained baseline size. Conclusions: Effective mydriasis was achieved in the test eye with 1 or 2 drops and was sustained to 120 minutes. Therefore, retinal examinations could be completed by 90 minutes in most infants with the use of 1 drop. A larger study is needed to determine the effect of iris color and severity of ROP on these findings. © 2012 by the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Source


England B.R.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Sayles H.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Michaud K.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Caplan L.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 9 more authors.
Arthritis Care and Research | Year: 2016

Objective There has been limited investigation into cause-specific mortality and the associated risk factors in men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated all-cause and cause-specific mortality in men with RA, examining determinants of survival. Methods Men from a longitudinal RA registry were followed from enrollment until death or through 2013. Vital status and cause of death were determined using the National Death Index. Crude mortality rates and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and respiratory mortality. Associations with all-cause and cause-specific mortality were examined using multivariable Cox proportional hazards and competing-risks regression. Results There were 1,652 men with RA and 332 deaths. The leading causes of death were CVD (31.6%; SMR 1.77 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.46-2.14]), cancer (22.9%; SMR 1.50 [95% CI 1.20-1.89]), and respiratory disease (15.1%; SMR 2.90 [95% CI 2.20-3.83]). Factors associated with all-cause mortality included older age, white race, smoking, low body weight, comorbidity, disease activity, and prednisone use. Rheumatoid factor concentration and nodules were associated with CVD mortality. There were no associations of methotrexate or biologic agent use with all-cause or cause-specific mortality. Conclusion Men in this RA cohort experienced increased all-cause and cause-specific mortality, with a 3-fold risk of respiratory-related deaths compared to age-matched men in the general population. Further studies are needed in order to examine whether interventions targeting potentially modifiable correlates of mortality might lead to improved long-term survival in men with RA. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology. Source


Franceschini N.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Shara N.M.,MedStar Research Institute | Shara N.M.,Georgetown and Howard Universities | Wang H.,MedStar Research Institute | And 15 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2012

Type 2 diabetes is highly prevalent and is the major cause of progressive chronic kidney disease in American Indians. Genome-wide association studies identified several loci associated with diabetes but their impact on susceptibility to diabetic complications is unknown. We studied the association of 18 type 2 diabetes genome-wide association single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; MDRD equation) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in 6958 Strong Heart Study family and cohort participants. Center-specific residuals of eGFR and log urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, obtained from linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index, were regressed onto SNP dosage using variance component models in family data and linear regression in unrelated individuals. Estimates were then combined across centers. Four diabetic loci were associated with eGFR and one locus with urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. A SNP in the WFS1 gene (rs10010131) was associated with higher eGFR in younger individuals and with increased albuminuria. SNPs in the FTO, KCNJ11, and TCF7L2 genes were associated with lower eGFR, but not albuminuria, and were not significant in prospective analyses. Our findings suggest a shared genetic risk for type 2 diabetes and its kidney complications, and a potential role for WFS1 in early-onset diabetic nephropathy in American Indian populations. © 2012 International Society of Nephrology. Source

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