The George Washington University is a private, coeducational research university located in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.C. The university was chartered by an Act of Congress on February 9, 1821, as the Columbian College in the District of Columbia. In 1904, it changed its name to the George Washington University in honor of George Washington, the first President of the United States. It is the largest institution of higher education in the District of Columbia.The university awards undergraduate and graduate degrees in several disciplines through all of its ten different schools. GWU's Columbian College of Arts and science, School of Business, Elliott School of International Affairs, Milken Institute School of Public Health, School of Engineering and Applied Science, and the School of Nursing offer undergraduate and graduate degrees. The university also has specialized schools within colleges such as the School of Media and Public Affairs and the Corcoran School of the Arts and Design.GWU is consistently ranked by The Princeton Review in the top "Most Politically Active" Schools. Many of the university's graduates have gone on to high positions within both the United States Government and in foreign governments. Notable alumni include US Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, former Secretary of State Colin Powell, former First-Lady Jacqueline Kennedy, and former FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover. There are currently four George Washington University alumni serving in the United States Senate, nine serving in the United States House of Representatives, and ten serving as United States ambassadors.The sports teams and current and former students in general are called "Colonials". Wikipedia.
Li T.,George Washington University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012
Ideal tensile stress strain relations for single-layer MoS 2 are investigated based on first-principle calculation, for biaxial tension and uniaxial tension along zigzag and armchair directions. The predicted ideal tensile strengths and elastic moduli are in excellent agreement with the very recent experimental measurements of Bertolazzi and Castellanos-Gomez. It is identified that the tensile strength of single-layer MoS 2 are dictated by out-of-plane soft-mode phonon instability under biaxial tension and uniaxial tension along the armchair direction. This failure mechanism, different from that of the truly two-dimensional material graphene, is attributed to the out-of-plane atomic relaxation upon tensile strain. Investigation of the electronic structures of single-layer MoS 2 under tensile strain shows the material becomes an indirect semiconductor at small tensile strain (<2%) and turns into metallic before reaching the ideal tensile strength. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Pyron R.A.,George Washington University
Systematic Biology | Year: 2014
Amphibia comprises over 7000 extant species distributed in almost every ecosystem on every continent except Antarctica. Most species also show high specificity for particular habitats, biomes, or climatic niches, seemingly rendering long-distance dispersal unlikely. Indeed, many lineages still seem to show the signature of their Pangaean origin, approximately 300 Ma later. To date, no study has attempted a large-scale historical-biogeographic analysis of the group to understand the distribution of extant lineages. Here, I use an updated chronogram containing 3309 species (~45% of extant diversity) to reconstruct their movement between 12 global ecoregions. I find that Pangaean origin and subsequent Laurasian and Gondwanan fragmentation explain a large proportion of patterns in the distribution of extant species. However, dispersal during the Cenozoic, likely across land bridges or short distances across oceans, has also exerted a strong influence. Finally, there are at least three strongly supported instances of long-distance oceanic dispersal between former Gondwanan landmasses during the Cenozoic. Extinction from intervening areas seems to be a strong factor in shaping present-day distributions. Dispersal and extinction fromand between ecoregions are apparently tied to the evolution of extraordinarily adaptive expansion-oriented phenotypes that allow lineages to easily colonize new areas and diversify, or conversely, to extremely specialized phenotypes or heavily relictual climatic niches that result in strong geographic localization and limited diversification. © The Author(s) 2014.
Dietz W.H.,George Washington University
Annual Review of Public Health | Year: 2015
The recognition of the obesity epidemic as a national problem began in 1999 with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) publication of a series of annual state-based maps that demonstrated the rapid changes in the prevalence of obesity. Increasing rates of obesity had been noted in earlier CDC studies, but the maps provided evidence of a rapid, nationwide increase. The urgent need to respond to the epidemic led to the identification of state targets and the first generation of interventions for obesity prevention and control. The CDC's role was to provide setting- and intervention-specific guidance on implementing these strategies, and to assess changes in targeted policies and behaviors. The CDC's efforts were augmented by Congressional funding for community initiatives to improve nutrition and increase physical activity. Complementary investments by Kaiser Permanente, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Institute of Medicine improved the evidence base and provided policy recommendations that reinforced the need for a multisectoral approach. Legislative, regulatory, and voluntary initiatives enacted by President Obama's administration translated many of the strategies into effective practice. Whether current efforts to address obesity can be sustained will depend on whether they can be translated into greater grass-roots engagement consistent with a social movement. Copyright © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Zhang Y.,George Washington University
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013
Esophageal cancer (EsC) is one of the least studied and deadliest cancers worldwide because of its extremely aggressive nature and poor survival rate. It ranks sixth among all cancers in mortality. In retrospective studies of EsC, smoking, hot tea drinking, red meat consumption, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Barrett's esophagus is clearly recognized as a risk factor for EsC, and dysplasia remains the only factor useful for identifying patients at increased risk, for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in clinical practice. Here, we investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of EsC. Using population based cancer data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program of the United States; we generated the most up-to-date stage distribution and 5-year relative survival by stage at diagnosis for 1998-2009. Special note should be given to the fact that esophageal cancer, mainly adenocarcinoma, is one of the very few cancers that is contributing to increasing death rates (20%) among males in the United States. To further explore the mechanism of development of EsC will hopefully decrease the incidence of EsC and improve outcomes. © 2013 Baishideng. All rights reserved.
Weglicki W.B.,George Washington University
Annual Review of Nutrition | Year: 2012
In recent years, increasing awareness of hypomagnesemia has resulted in clinical trials that associate this mineral deficiency with diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and drug therapies for cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, diagnostic testing for tissue deficiency of magnesium still presents a challenge. Investigations of animal and cellular responses to magnesium deficiency have found evidence of complex proinflammatory pathways that may lead to greater understanding of mediators of the pathobiology in neuronal, cardiovascular, intestinal, renal, and hematological tissues. The roles of free radicals, cytokines, neuropeptides, endotoxin, endogenous antioxidants, and vascular permeability, and interventions to limit the inflammatory response associated with these parameters, are outlined in basic studies of magnesium deficiency. It is hoped that this limited review of inflammation associated with some diseases complicated by magnesium deficiency will prompt greater awareness by clinicians and other health providers and in turn increase efforts to prevent and treat this disorder. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.