George Mason University is the largest research university in Virginia and is based in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States, south of and adjacent to the city of Fairfax. Additional campuses are located nearby in Arlington County, Prince William County, and Loudoun County. The university's motto is Freedom and Learning.The university was founded as a branch of the University of Virginia in 1957 and became an independent institution in 1972. Today, Mason is recognized for its strong programs in economics, law, creative writing, computer science, and business. In recent years, George Mason faculty have twice won the Nobel Prize in Economics. The university enrolls 33,917 students, making it the largest university by head count in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Wikipedia.
Uhen M.D.,George Mason University
Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences
Whales are first found in the fossil record approximately 52.5 million years ago (Mya) during the early Eocene in Indo-Pakistan. Our knowledge of early and middle Eocene whales has increased dramatically during the past three decades to the point where hypotheses of whale origins can be supported with a great deal of evidence from paleontology, anatomy, stratigraphy, and molecular biology. Fossils also provide preserved evidence of behavior and habitats, allowing the reconstruction of the modes of life of these semiaquatic animals during their transition from land to sea. Modern whales originated from ancient whales at or near the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, approximately 33.7 Mya. During the Oligocene, ancient whales coexisted with early baleen whales and early toothed whales. By the end of the Miocene, most modern families had originated, and most archaic forms had gone extinct. Whale diversity peaked in the late middle Miocene and fell thereafter toward the Recent, yielding our depauperate modern whale fauna. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source
Frankenfeld C.L.,George Mason University
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Background: Equol and O-desmefhylangolensin (ODMA) are products of gut bacterial metabolism of daidzein, a phytochemical found predominantly in soy. Dietary sources of equol from animal products have been identified, which has raised the question of the relative contributions of daidzein intake and gut metabolism to equol and of equol intake from animal products in low-soy-consuming populations. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the contribution of dietary food groups to urinary isoflavone and daidzein metabolite concentrations in a representative sample of US adults. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of dietary and urinary isoflavonoid data from 3115 individuals in the 2001-2002 and 2003-2004 data cycles of the National Nutrition and Health Examination Survey (NHANES) was conducted. Results: Daidzein intake and consumption frequency of grain products and legumes, nuts, and seeds were significant correlates of daidzein, genistein, and ODMA concentrations; and soy legumes were a stronger correlate than were nonsoy legumes. Milk and milk product consumption and daidzein intake, but not legumes, were significant correlates of urinary equol concentrations; milk products were more strongly correlated (P for trend < 0.001) than was daidzein intake (P = 0.011). Conclusions: These results suggest that dietary daidzein and legumes may contribute to urinary daidzein, genistein, and ODMA concentrations in this low-soy-consuming population. These results also suggest that equol concentrations in low-soy-consuming populations may reflect equol intakes from mammalian milk sources and may not reflect the endogenous production of equol from the microbial metabolism of daidzein - an observation not yet documented in the US population. These results support the careful design and interpretation of urinary isoflavonoid excretion studies, particularly bacterial metabolites, in low-soy-consuming populations. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition. Source
Dean S.N.,George Mason University
Chronic, infected wounds typically contain multiple genera of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, many of which are strong biofilm formers. Bacterial biofilms are thought to be a direct impediment to wound healing. New therapies that focus on a biofilm approach may improve the recovery and healing rate for infected wounds. In this study, cathelicidins and related short, synthetic peptides were tested for their anti-microbial effectiveness as well as their ability to inhibit the ability of S. aureus to form biofilms. The helical human cathelicidin LL-37 was tested against S. aureus, and was found to exhibit effective anti-microbial, anti-attachment as well as anti-biofilm activity at concentrations in the low μg/ml range. The effect of peptide chirality and associated protease-resistance was explored through the use of an all-D amino acid peptide, D-LL-37, and in turn compared to scrambled LL-37. Helical cathelicidins have been identified in other animals such as the Chinese cobra, Naja atra (NA-CATH). We previously identified an 11-residue imperfectly repeated pattern (ATRA motif) within the sequence of NA-CATH. A series of short peptides (ATRA-1, -2, -1A), as well as a synthetic peptide, NA-CATH:ATRA1-ATRA1, were designed to explore the significance of the conserved residues within the ATRA motif for anti-microbial activity. The CD spectrum of NA-CATH and NA-CATH:ATRA1-ATRA1 revealed the structural properties of these peptides and suggested that helicity may factor into their anti-microbial and anti-biofilm activities. The NA-CATH:ATRA1-ATRA1 peptide inhibits the production of biofilm by S. aureus in the presence of salt, exhibiting anti-biofilm activity at lower peptide concentrations than NA-CATH, LL-37 and D-LL-37; and demonstrates low cytoxicity against host cells but does not affect bacterial attachment. The peptides utilized in this anti-biofilm approach may provide templates for a new group of anti-microbials and potential future topical therapeutics for treating chronic wound infections. Source
George Mason University | Date: 2010-11-24
George Mason University | Date: 2013-06-21
A system and method for determining at least one hardening strategy to prevent at least one attack, comprising: performing processing associated with obtaining at least one attack graph, the at least one attack graph comprising at least one goal condition, at least one initial condition, and at least one exploit; performing processing associated with obtaining at least one allowable action that disables the at least one initial condition; performing processing associated with obtaining costs associated with the at least one allowable action; and performing processing associated with utilizing the at least one allowable action to determine at least one recommended strategy from the at least one allowable action taking into account the costs.