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Ni Mhurchu C.,University of Auckland | Ni Mhurchu C.,MRC Human Nutrition Research | Blakely T.,University of Otago | Jiang Y.,University of Auckland | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Background: Traditional methods to improve population diets have largely relied on individual responsibility, but there is growing interest in structural interventions such as pricing policies. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of price discounts and tailored nutrition education on supermarket food and nutrient purchases. Design: A 2 x 2 factorial randomized controlled trial was conducted in 8 New Zealand supermarkets. A total of 1104 shoppers were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 4 interventions that were delivered over 6 mo: price discounts (12.5%) on healthier foods, tailored nutrition education, discounts plus education, or control (no intervention). The primary outcome was change in saturated fat purchased at 6 mo. Secondary outcomes were changes in other nutrients and foods purchased at 6 and 12 mo. Outcomes were assessed by using electronic scanner sales data. Results: At 6 mo, the difference in saturated fat purchased for price discounts on healthier foods compared with that purchased for no discount on healthier foods was -0.02% (95% CI: 20.40%, 0.36%; P = 0.91). The corresponding difference for tailored nutrition education compared with that for no education was 20.09% (95% CI: 20.47%, 0.30%; P = 0.66). However, those subjects who were randomly assigned to receive price discounts bought significantly more predefined healthier foods at 6 mo (11% more; mean difference: 0.79 kg/wk; 95% CI: 0.43, 1.16; P < 0.001) and 12 mo (5% more; mean difference: 0.38 kg/wk; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.76; P = 0.045). Education had no effect on food purchases. Conclusions: Neither price discounts nor tailored nutrition education had a significant effect on nutrients purchased. However, the significant and sustained effect of discounts on food purchases suggests that pricing strategies hold promise as a means to improve population diets. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Bansal D.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Yadav A.K.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Kumar V.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Minz M.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | And 3 more authors.

Background:Measures to prevent chronic calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) toxicity have included limiting exposure by switching to sirolimus (SIR). SIR may favorably influence T regulator cell (Treg) population. This randomized controlled trial compares the effect of switching from CNI to SIR on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and Treg frequency.Methods:In this prospective open label randomized trial, primary living donor kidney transplant recipients on CNI-based immunosuppression were randomized to continue CNI or switched to sirolimus 2 months after surgery; 29 were randomized to receive CNI and 31 to SIR. All patients received mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. The main outcome parameter was estimated GFR (eGFR) at 180 days. Treg population was estimated by flowcytometry.Results:Baseline characteristics in the two groups were similar. Forty-eight patients completed the trial. At six months, patients in the SIR group had significantly higher eGFR as compared to those in the CNI group (88.94±11.78 vs 80.59±16.51 mL/min, p = 0.038). Patients on SIR had a 12 mL/min gain of eGFR of at the end of six months. Patients in the SIR group showed significant increase in Treg population at 30 days, which persisted till day 180. There was no difference in the adverse events in terms of number of acute rejection episodes, death, infections, proteinuria, lipid profile, blood pressure control and hematological parameters between the two groups. Four patients taking SIR developed enthesitis. No patient left the study or switched treatment because of adverse event.Conclusions:A deferred pre-emptive switch over from CNI to SIR safely improves renal function and Treg population at 6 months in living donor kidney transplant recipients.Registered in Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI/2011/091/000034). © 2013 Bansal et al. Source

Blakely T.,University of Otago | Mhurchu C.N.,University of Auckland | Jiang Y.,University of Auckland | Matoe L.,Te Hotu Manawa Maori | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

Background Reducing health inequalities requires interventions that work as well, if not better, among disadvantaged populations. The aim of this study was to determine if the effects of price discounts and tailored nutrition education on supermarket food purchases (percentage energy from saturated fat and healthy foods purchased) vary by ethnicity, household income and education. Method A 2×2 factorial trial of 1104 New Zealand shoppers randomised to receive a 12.5% discount on healthier foods and/or tailored nutrition education (or no intervention) for 6 months. Results There was no overall association of price discounts or nutrition education with percentage energy from saturated fat, or nutrition education with healthy food purchasing. There was an association of price discounts with healthy food purchasing (0.79 kg/week increase; 95% CI 0.43 to 1.16) that varied by ethnicity (p=0.04): European/other 1.02 kg/week (n=755; 95% CI 0.60 to 1.43); Pacific 1.20 kg/week (n=101; 95% CI 0.06 to 2.34); Māori -0.15 kg/week (n=248; 95% CI - 1.10 to 0.80). This association of price discounts with healthy food purchasing did not vary by household income or education. Conclusions While a statistically significant variation by ethnicity in the effect of price discounts on food purchasing was found, the authors caution against a causal interpretation due to likely biases (eg, attrition) that differentially affected Māori and Pacific people. The study highlights the challenges in generating valid evidence by social groups for public health interventions. The null findings for tailored nutritional education across all social groups suggest that structural interventions (such as price) may be more effective. Source

Barzilay J.I.,Kaiser Permanente | Gao P.,McMaster University | O'Donnell M.,McMaster University | Mann J.F.E.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 6 more authors.
Archives of Internal Medicine

Background: Microvascular disease of the kidney (manifesting as albuminuria) and of the brain (manifesting as cognitive decline) may share a common pathogenesis. Gaining an understanding of the concomitant history of these 2 conditions may inform clinical practice and lead to novel prevention and treatment approaches. Methods: A total of 28 384 participants with vascular disease or diabetes mellitus were examined. At baseline and year 5, participants underwent a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and urine testing for albumin excretion. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between albumin excretion and MMSE score, cross-sectionally and prospectively, and whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and/or angiotensin receptor blocker use modified the association. Results: Compared with participants with normoalbuminuria, those with microalbuminuria (odds ratio [OR], 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.44]) and macroalbuminuria (1.49; 1.20-1.85) were more likely to have a reduced MMSE score (<24). On follow-up, participants with baseline albuminuria had increased odds of cognitive decline (decrease in MMSE score ≥3 points) compared with those with normoalbuminuria (microalbuminuria: OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.07-1.38; macroalbuminuria: 1.21; 0.94-1.55). Participants who developed new albuminuria had increased odds of cognitive decline during follow-up compared with those who remained normoalbuminuric (new microalbuminuria: OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.12-1.52; new macroalbuminuria: 1.77; 1.24-2.54). Participants with baseline macroalbuminuria treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and/or angiotensin receptor blocker had lower odds of MMSE decline than participants treated with placebo. Conclusion: Factors that contribute to albuminuria may contribute to cognitive decline, supporting the notion that both conditions share a common microvascular pathogenesis. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00153101. ©2011 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Lee C.C.,Institute of Metabolic Science | Stolk R.P.,Institute of Metabolic Science | Stolk R.P.,University of Groningen | Adler A.I.,Institute of Metabolic Science | And 10 more authors.
Diabetic Medicine

Aims We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and diabetic retinopathy and deterioration of visual acuity in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Methods We conducted a cohort analysis of 1239 participants with Type 2 diabetes aged 55-81 years enrolled in the AdRem study, a sub-study of the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial. Current and past consumption of wine, spirits and beer was measured by self-report. Moderate and heavy alcohol consumption was defined as 1-14 and > 14 drinks/week, respectively. Diabetic retinopathy, measured by mydriatic stereoscopic seven-field retinal photography, was defined by a 2-step progression in the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) score or the presence of any retinal vascular lesions. Deterioration of visual acuity was defined by a decrease of two lines in best vision in either eye, measured corrected, or through a pinhole using a Snellen chart. Results In a mean follow-up of 5.5 years, we identified 182 participants with a 2-step progression in the ETDRS score, 640 participants with the presence of any retinal vascular lesions and 693 participants with a deterioration of visual acuity. Current moderate consumption of alcohol, compared with no current consumption, was not associated with presence or progression of diabetic retinopathy; however, it was associated with higher risk of deterioration of visual acuity (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.34-2.48; P < 0.001). Conclusions Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of deterioration of visual acuity, but not with retinopathy in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. © 2010 Diabetes UK. Source

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