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Higuera G.,University of Chile | Bastias R.,University of Chile | Tsertsvadze G.,George Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage | Romero J.,University of Chile | Espejo R.T.,University of Chile
Aquaculture | Year: 2013

Vibrio anguillarum is a marine bacterium that can cause vibriosis in several fish species of economic importance. The use of bacteriophage is an alternative strategy to control vibriosis in aquaculture systems. Here, we present the isolation and characterization of six phages that are able to infect the pathogenic strain of V. anguillarum, PF4. These phages all possess a similar double stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome but, according to their restriction pattern, can be differentiated into three types. The phages exhibited a similar host range, infecting both V. anguillarum and V. ordalii but not V. parahaemolyticus strains. The CHOED phage protected Salmo salar against experimentally induced vibriosis with the strain PF4. The presence of the phage increased the survival of fish to 100% when it was used with a MOI of 1 and 20, versus less than 10% of survival in the absence of the phage. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the ability of V. anguillarum phages to protect fish against experimental infection with V. anguillarum, and our results support the development of phage therapy as a valid alternative for the control of vibriosis in salmonid aquaculture. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Jaiani E.,George Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage | Kokashvili T.,George Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage | Mitaishvili N.,George Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage | Elbakidze T.,George Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Water and Health | Year: 2013

Microbial safety of recreational water is one of the major human public health issues in developing countries. Three water bodies, the Tbilisi Sea, Kumisi and Lisi lakes, in the South Caucasus region near Tbilisi, Georgia, were monitored in 2006-2009 to determine microbiological quality using standard methods. Microbial pollution indicators were determined in parallel with phytoplankton abundance and measurement of a number of physical-chemical parameters. Kumisi Lake, a brackish water body in an active agricultural area, appeared to be the most polluted, whereas the Tbilisi Sea, a freshwater reservoir was the least polluted. High values for fecal indicators in all three lakes in summer and early autumn were revealed. In our study, total enterococci counts (TEC) appeared to be a better indicator than either fecal or total coliform counts for the evaluation of fresh and brackish microbial water quality. We found significant correlation between total Vibrio counts and TEC for all three water bodies. Prevalence of somatic coliphages and V. cholerae-specific phages as additional water pollution indicator significantly correlated with abundance of the host bacteria. Particular phytoplankton groups in the lakes responded to the changes of fecal indicators; however, no correlation was observed between dominant zooplankton taxonomic groups and microbial parameters. © IWA Publishing 2013. Source

Janelidze N.,George Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage | Jaiani E.,George Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage | Lashkhi N.,George Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage | Tskhvediani A.,George Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage | And 10 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2011

From 2006 to 2008, microbial water quality was monitored along the Georgian coast of the Black Sea. Temperature, pH, salinity, and dissolved oxygen were measured, along with a variety of aquatic microbial parameters, including heterotrophic plate count (HPC), total culturable bacterial count (TCBC), and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration. Total and fecal coliforms and total enterococci counts were recorded as indicators of fecal pollution. Vibrio bacteria, and Escherichia coli- and Vibrio-specific bacteriophages were isolated and enumerated to determine their relationships to standard marine pollution indicators.Persistent microbial pollution was observed, particularly in the summer months, with a higher rate of contamination in estuaries. Microbial indicators generally showed seasonal dependence, suggesting that temperature may influence bacterial dynamics in this environment. No correlation was apparent between fecal pollution indicators and physical-chemical and aquatic microbial parameters, although there were significant relationships amongst the indicators themselves, as well as with the prevalence of Vibrio bacteria and phage. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Gambashidze K.,Tbilisi State Medical University | Khorava P.,Tbilisi State Medical University | Azaladze T.,Tbilisi State Medical University | Kalandarishvili K.,Tbilisi State Medical University | And 5 more authors.
Experimental Oncology | Year: 2012

Aim: To augment anti-tumor host response and overcome the tumor-induced immunosuppression is of paramount importance especially when patient is subjected to radio-/chemotherapy and immune system suffers significantly. Various immunological methods have been employed as supplemental antitumor therapies. We were aimed to investigate the antitumor potential of phagelysates of gram-negative bacteria and their adjuvant effects for conventional chemotherapy in experiment. Methods: Bacterial phagelysates of E.coli and purified suspensions of corresponding Un bacteriophage were obtained by standard methods of phage research. Experiments were carried out on BL57C/6J mice bearing transplanted Ehrlich carcinoma. Different regimens of phagelysate administration (0,5 ml E. coli phagelysate, 3/8 times with 5 day intervals) and conventional chemotherapy (combination of Doxorubicin 60 mg/m2, Cyclophosphan 800 mg/m2, Ftoruracil 600 mg/m2, 3 times with 21 day intervals) were tested. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by tumor growth inhibition percent, index of malignant growth, lifespan and survival percent. Results: Experiments have shown that application of optimal doses of E. coli phagelysate can be well tolerated in mice. No stimulation or support of malignant growth was observed. E. coli phagelysate exhibited significant anticancer effect and adjuvant efficacy. Cancer development was delayed in 65% of inoculated animals in the test group. E. coli phagelysate inhibited tumor growth by 80-90% without apparent side effects. The mice survival was prolonged twice and more. On 65th-69th days of tumor growth in 13% animals complete regression of neoplasms was registered. Application of phagelysates in combination with chemotherapy significantly increased antitumor efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Conclusion: Application of bacterial phagelysates can be considered as promising novel strategy in cancer therapeutics. Source

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