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Baucon A.,University of Milan | Baucon A.,geopark | Felletti F.,University of Milan
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2013

Barrier-islands are common landforms and biodiverse habitats, yet they received scarce neoichnological attention. This gap is tackled by studying the Mula di Muggia barrier-island system (Grado lagoon, Italy), focusing on morphology, ecology and ethology of individual traces. The following incipient ichnotaxa are identified: Archaeonassa, Arenicolites, Bergaueria, 'diverging shafts', Helminthoidichnites, Lockeia, Macanopsis, Monocraterion, Nereites, Parmaichnus, Polykladichnus, Skolithos, Thalassinoides and 'squat burrows'. Vertebrate (Avipeda-/Ardeipeda-like, Canipeda) and invertebrate tracks ('parallel furrows') are also described.For each ichnotaxon, tracemaker and behavior are discussed, together with their position with respect to sediment barriers. Results suggest that sediment barriers impose a sharp contrast in terms of ichnological composition. Back-barrier is dominated by branched burrows (i.e. Thalassinoides, Parmaichnus), while the fore-barrier presents vertical and U-shaped burrows (Arenicolites, Skolithos). The environmental conditions of the back-barrier show that low-oxygen substrates favor intense bioturbation, provided that the water column is sufficiently oxygenated. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Baucon A.,University of Milan | Baucon A.,geopark | Felletti F.,University of Milan
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2013

A new method is proposed for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying geographically referenced ichnological data: IchnoGIS. This approach is based on the integration of spatial, geostatistical techniques with network theory, aiming to characterize the environmental significance of recent traces. The efficiency of the IchnoGIS method is tested against a case-study: the Grado lagoon (Italy). The studied site, located within the epeiric Northern Adriatic Sea, consists of a complex mosaic of peritidal environments in a barrier-island context. Here, a diverse ichnofauna includes the following incipient ichnotaxa: Arenicolites, Helminthoidichnites, Lockeia, Macanopsis, Monocraterion, Parmaichnus, Polykladichnus, Skolithos, Thalassinoides and 'squat burrows'. Ichnofaunal distribution is described by the spatial and geostatistical tools proper of the IchnoGIS approach. Additionally, the application of network theory documents the emergence of organized structures (ichnoassociations) from interactions driven by environmental factors. Our results elucidate the role that environmental processes play in producing the complex ichnological patterns of the Grado site. In particular, emersion time, hydrodynamics, substrate firmness and microbial binding are the major control factors determining the structure and distribution of trace associations. These structuring factors are used to define a predictive model of ichnoassociation composition, providing an immediate tool for future palaeoenvironmental reconstitutions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Reich M.,geopark
Echinoderms: Durham - Proceedings of the 12th International Echinoderm Conference | Year: 2010

After the first published accounts on fossil and recent crinoids in the sixteenth century, correct interpretations of these marine animals were rare in the following centuries. One of the forerunners in the first half of the seventeenth century was Eberhard Friedrich Hiemer (1682-1727); in 1724 he described a slab of Early Jurassic Posidonia Shale with Seirocrinus subangularis (Miller, 1821) as 'Swabian Caput Medusae' after comparing it with the echinoderm Gorgonocephalus caputmedusae (Linnaeus, 1758), which has recently been described as 'Caput Medusæ' as well as 'Gorgon's head'. The original plate of Hiemer was thought lost for more than 200 years, and was rediscovered in 2004. The present article deals with the history of this plate. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group.


Reich M.,geopark
Echinoderms: Durham - Proceedings of the 12th International Echinoderm Conference | Year: 2010

A rich cyclocystoid fauna, based on macroscopical and isolated microscopical material comprising at least 13 species of Polytryphocycloides, Zygocycloides, Cyclocystoides, Sievertsia, Apycnodiscus, as well as an undescribed new genus, have been found in nearly all Silurian strata of Gotland, Sweden. Cyclocystoides and Zygocycloides are recorded from the Silurian for the first time. The new material presented here, shows an exceptional diversity within the sparse fossil record of this echinoderm group. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group.


Reich M.,geopark
Echinoderms: Durham - Proceedings of the 12th International Echinoderm Conference | Year: 2010

The evolution and diversification of the small, little understood echinozoan group Ophiocistioidea have been reviewed and reinterpreted by including new records of Ordovician and Silurian material from Baltoscandia. Ranging from the early Middle Ordovician to the early Late Permian, reports of ophiocistioids have been limited to Europe and Australia, with single records from North America and Asia. A new hypothesis of higher-level relationships within the Ophiocistioidea is presented. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group.


Reich M.,geopark
Echinoderms: Durham - Proceedings of the 12th International Echinoderm Conference | Year: 2010

The early evolution and diversification of the sea cucumbers have shortly been reviewed and reinterpreted, including new records of Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian material. Holothuroids have a Phanerozoic history extending back more than 464 Ma, ranging from the early Middle Ordovician to the present time. The maximum level of morphological diversification was apparently reached in the Mesozoic, in all likelihood due to a lack of research in other strata. A revised hypothesis of Early Palaeozoic higher-level relationships within the Holothuroidea is presented. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group.


Thirty-one widespread visible Holocene tephras in Hokkaido, northern Japan, were identified and their stratigraphic relationships were examined. Among these, three tephras from Komagatake volcano (Ko-c1, Ko-c2, and Ko-g), three from Tarumae volcano (Ta-a, Ta-b, and Ta-c), Us-1663 from Usu volcano, Ma-b from Mashu volcano, and B-Tm from Baegdusan volcano (on the boundary between North Korea and China) cover a large area of southern and eastern Hokkaido and are thus useful tephras for correlating sedimentary records and Holocene phenomena. All tephras were identified on the basis of their mineral composition and the refractive indices and major elements of their glass shards. The volcanic glass samples were dehydrated before refractive index measurement by heating at 400°C for 12h. Most Holocene tephras in Hokkaido can be easily identified on the basis of the refractive indices and major element compositions of volcanic glass. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Wrede V.,geopark | Mugge-Bartolovic V.,geopark
Geoheritage | Year: 2012

The Ruhr Area National GeoPark in Germany is located within a densely populated industrial region. Its background and focus are the close relationship between geology-based natural resources and the economic development of the region. In the scenic southern part of the region, where mining activities ceased in the 1970s, different initiatives have created a number of mining and geoheritage trails during the past decades. Against the background of the geopark, these individual projects have been consolidated and linked by a newly established long-distance hiking trail, now forming a complex network of all in all some 300 km in length. This facility strongly contributes to the tourist infrastructure, developing as part of the structural changes in the economy of the area. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Baucon A.,geopark
Palaios | Year: 2010

Science historians separated the scientific origins of ichnology and body fossil paleontology; the birth of body fossil paleontology is attributed to the Renaissance, whereas the beginnings of ichnology are placed in the 19th century. The present study shifts the boundaries of the history of paleontology and provides new information on an obscure chapter of scientific thought: the ichnological studies of Leonardo da Vinci. This report examines the ichnological observations of Leonardo da Vinci by (1) interpreting the Codex Leicester and the ichnosites described therein, and (2) studying the ichnological drawing included in the Codex I. This paper demonstrates the modernity and correctness of the observations and interpretations made by da Vinci, who used trace fossils to complement his hypothesis concerning the relationship of body fossils to the host sediment. The result from new information presented here is the establishment of a line of continuity between the two main branches of paleontologytrace fossils and body fossilsthat emerge united by the genius of Leonardo da Vinci, the founding father of ichnology. Copyright © 2010, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).


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