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Hayashi K.,Geometrics | Martin A.,GEOVision | Hatayama K.,National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster | Kobayashi T.,OYO Corporation
Leading Edge | Year: 2013

This article summarizes a passive surface-wave method that uses only two sensors and its application to the estimation of deep S-wave velocity structure. Three-dimensional S-wave velocity structure to a depth of several kilometers has a large effect on long-period ground motion in tectonic basins, such as the Los Angeles (LA) Basin. Recent studies of long-period ground motion in the LA Basin (e.g., Hatayama and Kalkan, 2012) show that observed ground motion in some areas cannot be explained by the S-wave velocity models in current use. Most studies of basin velocity structure rely on geologic information, surface and borehole geophysical data, and observed earthquake records to deduce or measure seismic velocities. Geophysical data and seismic stations commonly used for velocity analysis are sparsely distributed and most well data are too shallow to characterize deep S-wave velocity structure. To establish more accurate basin velocity structure, there is a need for more densely distributed deep S-wave velocity data. © 2013 © 2013 by The Society of Exploration Geophysicists.


Growing Need for Subterranean Warfare Technologies Worldwide to Bolster Its Sales in the Coming Years The Subterranean Warfare Technologies market provides detailed market segment level data on the international market. The Subterranean Warfare Technologies market report addresses forecast and growth patterns by company, regions and type or application from 2016 to 2021. Albany, NY, December 21, 2016 --( Request For Sample Report: http://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=S&repid=881247 The research study has segmented the market on the basis of different types and applications. The expected growth rate and market share of each segment have been provided in the study along with the demand, consumption and supply figures of subterranean warfare’s to give a clear image of the overall market. Furthermore, the research study presents the market size and forecast from 2011 to 2021 at a global level. Some of the key regions focused in the report include United States, Europe, China and Japan. With the growing use of tunnels and underground facilities by military and irregular forces to gain a tactical advantage is becoming more sophisticated and increasingly effective. In the recent battles, wherever the U.S. & other nations have overwhelming battle powers, their rivals resorted to a strong strategy with the use of underground tunnels and structures. The challenge offered by these clandestine tunnels and underground structures is the key to the emergence of transformational counter-terror technologies and tactics. Further, the report also estimates that future subterranean warfare techno-tactics show various new developments that will open a new era of subterranean warfare, in which a host of ever-changing technologies will be employed by armed forces and law enforcement agencies. The Middle East is full of ancient and modern underground systems that can be used as assets for the enemy forces. The report also profiled key players in the global market such as: Elbit Systems Advanced Geosciences, Inc. (AGI) Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd. CGG Canada Services Ltd Geogiga Technology Corporation Geometrics, Inc. PetRos EiKon Incorporated Geonics Ltd. Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. Interpex T. Clark Co. Inc. Vista Clara Inc. Mount Sopris Instruments Zonge International, Inc. Geomatrix Earth Science Ltd Northwest Geophysics Spotlight Geophysical Services Read Full Report with TOC: http://www.marketresearchhub.com/report/global-subterranean-warfare-technologies-sales-market-report-2016-report.html In the end of the report, upstream raw materials and downstream demand analysis is also carried out. Additionally, subterranean warfare technologies development trends and marketing channels are analyzed in the report for better understanding. About Market Research Hub: Market Research Hub (MRH) is a next-generation reseller of research reports and analysis. MRH’s expansive collection of market research reports has been carefully curated to help key personnel and decision makers across industry verticals to clearly visualize their operating environment and take strategic steps. MRH functions as an integrated platform for the following products and services: Objective and sound market forecasts, qualitative and quantitative analysis, incisive insight into defining industry trends, and market share estimates. Our reputation lies in delivering value and world-class capabilities to our clients. Contact Details: 90 State Street, Albany, NY 12207, United States Toll Free: 866-997-4948 (US-Canada) Tel: +1-518-621-2074 Email: press@marketresearchhub.com Website: http://www.marketresearchhub.com/ Follow Us On Twitter: https://twitter.com/MktResearchHub Albany, NY, December 21, 2016 --( PR.com )-- Today, the technology to detect and defeat underground facilities has improved, but it is still far away from perfect. Research has been going on for decades to bring out the best for military forces. A new report focusing on this technology has been recently broadcasted to the online repository of Market Research Hub (MRH). The study is entitled as “Global Subterranean Warfare Technologies Sales Market Report 2016” which provides a detailed analysis highlighting the market dynamics that are assessed to determine the growth in the coming few years.Request For Sample Report: http://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=S&repid=881247The research study has segmented the market on the basis of different types and applications. The expected growth rate and market share of each segment have been provided in the study along with the demand, consumption and supply figures of subterranean warfare’s to give a clear image of the overall market. Furthermore, the research study presents the market size and forecast from 2011 to 2021 at a global level. Some of the key regions focused in the report include United States, Europe, China and Japan.With the growing use of tunnels and underground facilities by military and irregular forces to gain a tactical advantage is becoming more sophisticated and increasingly effective. In the recent battles, wherever the U.S. & other nations have overwhelming battle powers, their rivals resorted to a strong strategy with the use of underground tunnels and structures. The challenge offered by these clandestine tunnels and underground structures is the key to the emergence of transformational counter-terror technologies and tactics.Further, the report also estimates that future subterranean warfare techno-tactics show various new developments that will open a new era of subterranean warfare, in which a host of ever-changing technologies will be employed by armed forces and law enforcement agencies. The Middle East is full of ancient and modern underground systems that can be used as assets for the enemy forces.The report also profiled key players in the global market such as:Elbit SystemsAdvanced Geosciences, Inc. (AGI)Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd.CGG Canada Services LtdGeogiga Technology CorporationGeometrics, Inc.PetRos EiKon IncorporatedGeonics Ltd.Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc.InterpexT. Clark Co. Inc.Vista Clara Inc.Mount Sopris InstrumentsZonge International, Inc.Geomatrix Earth Science LtdNorthwest GeophysicsSpotlight Geophysical ServicesRead Full Report with TOC: http://www.marketresearchhub.com/report/global-subterranean-warfare-technologies-sales-market-report-2016-report.htmlIn the end of the report, upstream raw materials and downstream demand analysis is also carried out. Additionally, subterranean warfare technologies development trends and marketing channels are analyzed in the report for better understanding.About Market Research Hub:Market Research Hub (MRH) is a next-generation reseller of research reports and analysis. MRH’s expansive collection of market research reports has been carefully curated to help key personnel and decision makers across industry verticals to clearly visualize their operating environment and take strategic steps.MRH functions as an integrated platform for the following products and services: Objective and sound market forecasts, qualitative and quantitative analysis, incisive insight into defining industry trends, and market share estimates. Our reputation lies in delivering value and world-class capabilities to our clients.Contact Details:90 State Street,Albany, NY 12207,United StatesToll Free: 866-997-4948 (US-Canada)Tel: +1-518-621-2074Email: press@marketresearchhub.comWebsite: http://www.marketresearchhub.com/Follow Us On Twitter: https://twitter.com/MktResearchHub


News Article | November 29, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

Wiseguyreports.Com Adds “Subterranean Warfare Technologies -Market Demand, Growth, Opportunities and analysis of Top Key Player Forecast to 2021” To Its Research Database This report studies sales (consumption) of Subterranean Warfare Technologies in Global market, especially in United States, China, Europe, Japan, focuses on top players in these regions/countries, with sales, price, revenue and market share for each player in these regions, covering Elbit Systems Elpam Electronics Advanced Geosciences, Inc. (AGI) Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd. CGG Canada Services Ltd Exploration Instruments LLC Lockheed-Martin Geogiga Technology Corporation Geomar Software Inc. Geometrics, Inc. Geonics Ltd. Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. Interpex Ltd. Mount Sopris Instruments PetRos EiKon Incorporated R. T. Clark Co. Inc. Sensors & Software Inc. Vista Clara Inc. Zonge International, Inc. Geomatrix Earth Science Ltd Northwest Geophysics Spotlight Geophysical Services Quest Geo Solutions Limited Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into several key Regions, with sales (consumption), revenue, market share and growth rate of Subterranean Warfare Technologies in these regions, from 2011 to 2021 (forecast), like United States China Europe Japan Split by product Types, with sales, revenue, price and gross margin, market share and growth rate of each type, can be divided into Type I Type II Type III Split by applications, this report focuses on sales, market share and growth rate of Subterranean Warfare Technologies in each application, can be divided into Application 1 Application 2 Application 3 Global Subterranean Warfare Technologies Sales Market Report 2016 1 Subterranean Warfare Technologies Overview 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Subterranean Warfare Technologies 1.2 Classification of Subterranean Warfare Technologies 1.2.1 Type I 1.2.2 Type II 1.2.3 Type III 1.3 Application of Subterranean Warfare Technologies 1.3.1 Application 1 1.3.2 Application 2 1.3.3 Application 3 1.4 Subterranean Warfare Technologies Market by Regions 1.4.1 United States Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.2 China Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.3 Europe Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.4 Japan Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.5 Global Market Size (Value and Volume) of Subterranean Warfare Technologies (2011-2021) 1.5.1 Global Subterranean Warfare Technologies Sales and Growth Rate (2011-2021) 1.5.2 Global Subterranean Warfare Technologies Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) 7 Global Subterranean Warfare Technologies Manufacturers Analysis 7.1 Elbit Systems 7.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 7.1.2 Subterranean Warfare Technologies Product Type, Application and Specification 7.1.2.1 Type I 7.1.2.2 Type II 7.1.3 Elbit Systems Subterranean Warfare Technologies Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 7.1.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.2 Elpam Electronics 7.2.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 7.2.2 129 Product Type, Application and Specification 7.2.2.1 Type I 7.2.2.2 Type II 7.2.3 Elpam Electronics Subterranean Warfare Technologies Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 7.2.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.3 Advanced Geosciences, Inc. (AGI) 7.3.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 7.3.2 142 Product Type, Application and Specification 7.3.2.1 Type I 7.3.2.2 Type II 7.3.3 Advanced Geosciences, Inc. (AGI) Subterranean Warfare Technologies Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 7.3.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.4 Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd. 7.4.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 7.4.2 Nov Product Type, Application and Specification 7.4.2.1 Type I 7.4.2.2 Type II 7.4.3 Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd. Subterranean Warfare Technologies Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 7.4.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.5 CGG Canada Services Ltd 7.5.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 7.5.2 Product Type, Application and Specification 7.5.2.1 Type I 7.5.2.2 Type II 7.5.3 CGG Canada Services Ltd Subterranean Warfare Technologies Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 7.5.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.6 Exploration Instruments LLC 7.6.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 7.6.2 Million USD Product Type, Application and Specification 7.6.2.1 Type I 7.6.2.2 Type II 7.6.3 Exploration Instruments LLC Subterranean Warfare Technologies Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 7.6.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.7 Lockheed-Martin 7.7.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 7.7.2 Service Product Type, Application and Specification 7.7.2.1 Type I 7.7.2.2 Type II 7.7.3 Lockheed-Martin Subterranean Warfare Technologies Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 7.7.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.8 Geogiga Technology Corporation 7.8.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 7.8.2 Product Type, Application and Specification 7.8.2.1 Type I 7.8.2.2 Type II 7.8.3 Geogiga Technology Corporation Subterranean Warfare Technologies Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 7.8.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.9 Geomar Software Inc. 7.9.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 7.9.2 Product Type, Application and Specification 7.9.2.1 Type I 7.9.2.2 Type II 7.9.3 Geomar Software Inc. Subterranean Warfare Technologies Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 7.9.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.10 Geometrics, Inc. 7.10.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 7.10.2 Product Type, Application and Specification 7.10.2.1 Type I 7.10.2.2 Type II 7.10.3 Geometrics, Inc. Subterranean Warfare Technologies Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 7.10.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.11 Geonics Ltd. 7.12 Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. 7.13 Interpex Ltd. 7.14 Mount Sopris Instruments 7.15 PetRos EiKon Incorporated 7.16 R. T. Clark Co. Inc. 7.17 Sensors & Software Inc. 7.18 Vista Clara Inc. 7.19 Zonge International, Inc. 7.20 Geomatrix Earth Science Ltd 7.21 Northwest Geophysics 7.22 Spotlight Geophysical Services 7.23 Quest Geo Solutions Limited


Goff D.S.,Louisiana State University | Lorenzo J.M.,Louisiana State University | Hayashi K.,Geometrics
28th Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems 2015, SAGEEP 2015 | Year: 2015

Levee foundation soils in New Orleans, USA, are composed of unconsolidated Holocene deltaic sediments. Traditionally, geotechnical tests at point locations can identify the more unstable zones, but cannot predict accurately the laterally heterogeneous facies of the Mississippi delta. Together, electrical resistivity and seismic shear wave studies can aid in the interpretation of different soil types between geotechnical sites. In such highly conductive, coastal soils, resistivity measurements are limited to shallow depths, but remain useful for describing variations in saturation and the presence of clays. Similar studies conducted in Japanese fluvial and Australian calcrete environments do not consider the influence of brackish water in coastal settings. The London Avenue Canal levee flank of New Orleans, which failed in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, 2005, presents a suitable site in which to pioneer these geophysical relationships in a coastal setting. Shear wave velocity and resistivity are related to soil properties through Hertz-Mindlin Theory and Archie's Law. Preliminary cross-plots show electrically resistive, high-shear-wave velocity areas interpreted as low-permeability, resistive silt. In brackish coastal environments, low-resistivity and low-shear-wave-velocity areas may indicate both saturated, unconsolidated sands and low-rigidity clays. Published polynomial approximations to similar cross-plots must be modified for use in the near-surface sediments of the Mississippi River Delta. We present new relationships between soil type, resistivity, and shear wave velocity to distinguish the three main sediment groups found in deltaic environments: sand, silt, and clays.


Hayashi K.,Geometrics
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2012

Analysis of surface wave data generally assumes that a dispersion curve mainly consists of a fundamental mode. Higher modes may dominate in several types of velocity structures, such as a model in which a high-velocity layer overlays on a low-velocity layer or a model in which a high-velocity layer is embedded in lowvelocity layers. In these types of complex velocity structures, higher modes may dominate in particular frequency range and observed dispersion curves look very complex. It is generally difficult to separate the fundamental mode and the higher modes correctly and traditional inversion methods based on the Jacobiam matrix cannot be applied. In order to overcome these difficulties, we have developed a new inversion method using a genetic algorithm (GA). In this new method, phase velocities and relative amplitude for the fundamental and higher modes are calculated. For each frequency, residual between observed and theoretical phase velocities is defined as the difference of an observed phase velocity and a synthetic phase velocity that has maximum relative amplitude in all modes. The GA is applied to obtain a velocity model that provides minimum residual. In this paper, we describe typical examples of dispersion curves in which higher modes dominate. Secondly, the theory of the new inversion method and numerical examples are shown. Finally, application of the new method to an engineering site investigation is demonstrated. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Hayash K.,Geometrics
Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophyics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, SAGEEP | Year: 2011

Any seismic refraction analysis is essentially non-unique. In most cases, it is difficult to obtain a true velocity model from traveltimes observed only at the ground surface. Even with a one-dimensional two-layer model, it is impossible to obtain true thickness and velocity without a priori knowledge that the model is two layers. Non-uniqueness is a problem not only for the seismic refraction method but also for most geophysical methods in which underground physical property models are estimated from geophysical data observed at the ground surface. All seismic practitioners and algorithm developers must admit this fundamental problem and try to develop alternative approaches. There are many approaches to reduce the non-uniqueness. Using priory information is the one of the most promising approach. It is well known that the result of a non-linear least squares inversion depends highly on the initial model. For instance, in the one-dimensional case, if we have a priori knowledge (perhaps from a downhole survey) that there are two layers, we can easily estimate a 1D true velocity function from a traveltime curve that indicates two layers. On the contrary, it is very difficult to estimate a true velocity function from the same traveltime curve if we know from other sources that they are actually three layers. Constraints during an inversion are also very important. Most of the geophysical inversions need spatial regularization in order to obtain stable results. During the inversion of the surface seismic refraction method, a constraint that velocity is increasing with depth is generally very effective. In this paper, we discuss the non-uniqueness of the seismic refraction method and demonstrate the importance of using appropriate initial model, constraints and model parameterization.


Hayashi K.,Geometrics | Underwood D.,Geometrics
Near Surface Geoscience 2013 | Year: 2013

We performed two-station microtremor array measurements (2ST-MAM) at several sites in the South Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area. Two seismographs with three-component accelerometers were used for data acquisition. The two accelerometers were separated by 5 to 4125m and several different separations were used at each site. The total record length of microtremor data for each separation was about 10 to 60 minutes and measurements at one site took several hours. A spatial autocorrelation was used for calculating phase velocity and clear dispersion curves were obtained in frequency range from 0.2 to 10 Hz. A joint inversion of dispersion curves and H/V spectra was applied to observed data and S-wave velocity models to a depth of about 2km were obtained.


Johnson R.,Geometrics
Hydro International | Year: 2013

Geometrics Inc., based in San Jose, CA, USA, designs and manufactures rugged, portable and technologically-innovative geophysical instruments for land, sea and air subsurface investigations. The company's main product lines include high speed cesium magnetometers, exploration seismographs, digital marine streamers and electrical conductivity imaging and resistivity systems. The company introduced commercial proton precession magneto - meters, which for a decade were the only source of high-resolution systems for oil exploration. Eventually the company expanded into other instrument manufacturing including gamma ray spectrometers, data acquisition and processing software, and airborne survey with company owned planes. Today, Geometrics' geophysical instruments, sensors and data processing software are used globally for energy and resource exploration. Geometrics was founded with a mission to promote a program of continuous improvement and to ensure delivery of high-quality and reliable products. Airborne mineral exploration companies such as Fugro and Geotech as well as smaller airborne contractors comprise the gold, iron and base metal exploration groups operating Geometrics magnetometer sensors.


Prouty M.D.,Geometrics | Tchernychev M.,Geometrics | Mhaskar R.R.,Geometrics
28th Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems 2015, SAGEEP 2015 | Year: 2015

Geometries has recently developed atomic magnetometer sensors with an order of magnitude lower power and size than previous commercial devices. This work will greatly increase the types of applications for which magnetometers may be used. This paper will present some of the advantages of total field magnetometers in general, and micro-fabricated atomic magnetometers (MFAM) in particular. Total field magnetometers are widely used in geophysical and other surveys where the magnetic field gives an indication of the properties of the subsurface. This includes applications for oil and mineral exploration, unexploded ordnance (UXO) detection and discrimination, and pipe and cable route surveying. One factor limiting the usefulness of magnetometers generally is their lack of ability to determine the direction to an anomaly from a single reading. This limitation is due to the properties of magnetic fields themselves, especially those that are dominated by the Earth's field. However, arrays of sensors give much more information about an anomaly, and such information may be used to determine a target's size and location. This is the principle of magnetic surveying, where readings are taken by painstakingly scanning an area with a single sensor, mapping the readings, and finally analyzing the data. An array of sensors, however, may take such readings simultaneously, allowing for immediate analysis. This is the major benefit of the new MFAM sensors. Due to their small size and power consumption, and to their potentially low cost, they can be easily deployed in arrays, which will allow the characteristics of the target to be determined in real time, rather than as a result of post processing after a survey is conducted. This opens up an enormous range of new opportunities for magnetometer sensors, as target information may be made available on the spot.


Ikeda T.,Kyoto University | Matsuoka T.,Kyoto University | Tsuji T.,Kyoto University | Tsuji T.,Kyushu University | Hayashi K.,Geometrics
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2012

Microtremors are usually analysed without any consideration of the higher modes of surface waves. However, recent studies have demonstrated that higher modes contain useful information for improving the inverted S-wave velocity model. In this study, we propose two inversion methods that consider higher modes by using the amplitude response of each mode, which can avoid mode misidentification in the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method. One method is to compare the observed phase velocities by the extended spatial autocorrelation (ESPAC) method with the effective phase velocities calculated from theoretical dispersion curves and the amplitude responses of each mode. In the other method, SPAC coefficients are fit directly by comparing theoretical SPAC coefficients determined from dispersion curves and amplitude responses with the observed ones. The latter, direct-fitting approach is much simpler than the method using effective phase velocities. To investigate the effectiveness of these methods, a simulation study was conducted. Simulated microtremors that included higher modes were successfully inverted by the proposed multimode methods. The observed phase velocities and SPAC coefficients determined from field data were also consistent with theoretical ones constructed by the proposed methods except at low frequencies. The inversion using effective phase velocities required prior information about an infinite half-space to obtain a better S-wave velocity model whereas the direct-fitting inversion worked well without prior information, suggesting the direct-fitting method is more robust than the method using effective phase velocities. We conclude that our proposed inversion methods are effective for estimating the S-wave velocity structure even if higher modes of surface waves are predominant in observed microtremors. © 2012 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2012 RAS.

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