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Carolina G.-A.,Geological Survey of Spain | Jackson C.R.,British Geological Survey
Wetlands | Year: 2011

Climate change impacts on natural recharge and groundwater-wetland dynamics were investigated for the Almonte-Marismas aquifer, Spain, which supports the internationally important Doñana wetland. Simulations were carried out using outputs from 13 global climate models to assess the impacts of climate change. Reductions in flow from the aquifer to streams and springs flooding the wetland, induced by changes in recharge according to different climate projections, were modelled. The results project that the change in climate by the 2080s, under a medium-high greenhouse gas emissions scenario, leads to a reduction in groundwater resources. The reduction in mean recharge ranges from 14%-57%. The simulations show that there is an impact on hydraulic head in terms of the overall water table configuration with decreases in groundwater level ranging from 0-17 m. Most simulations produce lower discharge rates from the aquifer to stream basins, with significant reductions in the larger La Rocina (between -55% and -25%) and Marismas (between -68% and -43%) catchments. Water flows from these two basins are critical to maintain aquatic life in the wetland and riparian ecosystems. Modelled climate-induced reductions in total groundwater discharge to the surface are generally larger than current groundwater© Society of Wetland Scientists 2011.

Riaza A.,Geological Survey of Spain | Muller A.,German Aerospace Center
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2010

Monitoring of mine waste on sulphide deposits through hyperspectral remote sensing data contributes to predicting surface water quality, quantitatively estimating acid drainage and metal contamination on a yearly basis. The mineralogy of surface crusts loaded with highly soluble salts is a record of available humidity and temperature along the year. A temporal monitoring of salt efflorescence on mine wastes at a mine site in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (Spain) has been mapped in this work using hyperspectral airborne Hymap data. Climate change estimations are made based on oxidation stages derived from well-known sequences of minerals tracing sulphides oxidation intensity, using archive spectral libraries. Therefore, mine-waste weathering products of sulphide mapped from airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data can be used as a short-term record of climate change, providing a useful tool for assessing environmental geoindicators in semi-arid areas. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Pardo-Iguzquiza E.,Geological Survey of Spain | Duran-Valsero J.J.,Geological Survey of Spain | Rodriguez-Galiano V.,University of Granada
Geomorphology | Year: 2011

The main idiosyncrasy of a typical karst system is the presence of a three-dimensional network of conduits behaving as drains in the system and being responsible of both the quick response of karst springs to rainfall events and the complex distribution of solutes in the system. A morphometric analysis of the three-dimensional geometry of conduits provides quantitative measures that can be used in a range of applications. These morphometric parameters can be used as descriptors of the underground geomorphology, they provide information on speleogenesis processes, they can be correlated with karst denudation ratios, they can be used to control the simulation of realistic stochastic karst networks of conduits, and they can be correlated with hydrogeologic behaviour of the karst system. The main purpose of this paper is to define, describe and illustrate a range of morphometric indexes and morphometric functions that can be calculated nowadays because the availability of three-dimensional topographies provided by speleological work and the availability of the computational and graphical power provided by modern computers. Some of the morphometric parameters describe the existence of preferential directions of karstification, others describe the kartification along the vertical and the possible presence of inception horizons. Other indexes describe the shape complexity of the karstic network, whilst other indexes describe spatial variability of the conduit geometry, and other parameters give account of the connectivity of the three-dimensional network. The morphometric analysis is illustrated with a three-dimensional karstic network in Southern France. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Pardo-Iguzquiza E.,Geological Survey of Spain | Rodriguez-Tovar F.J.,University of Granada
Computers and Geosciences | Year: 2012

Many spectral analysis techniques have been designed assuming sequences taken with a constant sampling interval. However, there are empirical time series in the geosciences (sediment cores, fossil abundance data, isotope analysis, hellip;) that do not follow regular sampling because of missing data, gapped data, random sampling or incomplete sequences, among other reasons. In general, interpolating an uneven series in order to obtain a succession with a constant sampling interval alters the spectral content of the series. In such cases it is preferable to follow an approach that works with the uneven data directly, avoiding the need for an explicit interpolation step. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram is a popular choice in such circumstances, as there are programs available in the public domain for its computation. One new computer program for spectral analysis improves the standard Lomb-Scargle periodogram approach in two ways: (1) It explicitly adjusts the statistical significance to any bias introduced by variance reduction smoothing, and (2) it uses a permutation test to evaluate confidence levels, which is better suited than parametric methods when neighbouring frequencies are highly correlated. Another novel program for cross-spectral analysis offers the advantage of estimating the Lomb-Scargle cross-periodogram of two uneven time series defined on the same interval, and it evaluates the confidence levels of the estimated cross-spectra by a non-parametric computer intensive permutation test. Thus, the cross-spectrum, the squared coherence spectrum, the phase spectrum, and the Monte Carlo statistical significance of the cross-spectrum and the squared-coherence spectrum can be obtained. Both of the programs are written in ANSI Fortran 77, in view of its simplicity and compatibility. The program code is of public domain, provided on the website of the journal (http://www.iamg.org/index.php/publisher/articleview/frmArticleID/112/). Different examples (with simulated and real data) are described in this paper to corroborate the methodology and the implementation of these two new programs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Gimenez-Forcada E.,Geological Survey of Spain
Ground Water | Year: 2010

This paper analyzes the results of a theoretical simulation of sea water intrusion and its dynamics. The assignment of hydrochemical facies identifies whether the aquifer is in the phase of sea water intrusion or freshening, indicating the status of the aquifer in terms of the advance or regression of the saline front. A new multi-rectangular diagram is proposed that aids interpretation of these important processes through the representation and evolution of hydrochemical facies (hydrochemical facies evolution diagram, HFE-D). As an example, the HEF-D is applied to an alluvial aquifer in the Vinaroz-Peñíscola Plain (Spain), where Ca-Cl facies characterize the sea water intrusion phase, while Na-MixHCO3/MixSO4 facies characterize a freshening stage. Copyright © 2009 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 National Ground Water Association.

Bejar-Pizarro M.,University Paris Diderot | Bejar-Pizarro M.,Geological Survey of Spain | Socquet A.,CNRS Institute of Earth Sciences | Armijo R.,University Paris Diderot | And 3 more authors.
Nature Geoscience | Year: 2013

Segmentation can influence the extent of earthquake rupture and event magnitude: large megathrust earthquakes result from total rupture of relatively continuous segments of the subduction interface. Segmentation is attributed to variations in the frictional properties of the seismogenic zone or to topographic features on the down-going plate. Structures in the overriding plate may also influence segmentation, but their importance has been dismissed. Here, we investigate the links between interface segmentation at the North Chile seismic gap and a crustal-scale fault structure in the overriding plate that forms a coastal scarp of about 1 km in height. We use satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) data to measure interseismic surface deformation between 2003 and 2009 and compare the deformation with rupture extent during well-documented earthquakes. From these data we infer the degree of coupling and segmentation at depth. We find that along a 500-km-long segment, the base of the strongly coupled seismogenic zone correlates with the line of the surface coastal scarp and follows the outline of the Mejillones Peninsula. This correlation implies that large-scale structures in the overriding plate can influence the frictional properties of the seismogenic zone at depth. We therefore suggest that the occurrence of megathrust earthquakes in northern Chile is controlled by the surface structures that build Andean topography. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Stoffel M.,University of Bern | Stoffel M.,University of Geneva | Corona C.,University of Bern | Ballesteros-Canovas J.A.,Geological Survey of Spain | Bodoque J.M.,University of Castilla - La Mancha
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2013

Soil erosion is a key driver of land degradation and heavily affects sustainable land management in various environments worldwide. An appropriate quantification of rates of soil erosion and a localization of hotspots are therefore critical, as sediment loss has been demonstrated to have drastic consequences on soil productivity and fertility. A consistent body of evidence also exists for a causal linkage between global changes and the temporal frequency and magnitude of erosion, and thus calls for an improved understanding of dynamics and rates of soil erosion for an appropriate management of landscapes and for the planning of preventive or countermeasures.Conventional measurement techniques to infer erosion rates are limited in their temporal resolution or extent. Long-term erosion rates in larger basins have been analyzed with cosmogenic nuclides, but with lower spatial and limited temporal resolutions, thus limiting the possibility to infer micro-geomorphic and climatic controls on the timing, amount and localization of erosion. If based on exposed tree roots, rates of erosion can be inferred with up to seasonal resolution, over decades to centuries of the past and for larger surfaces with homogenous hydrological response units. Root-based erosion rates, thus, constitute a valuable alternative to empirical or physically-based approaches, especially in ungauged basins, but will be controlled by individual or a few extreme events, so that average annual rates of erosion might be highly skewed. In this contribution, we review the contribution made by this biomarker to the understanding of erosion processes and related landform evolution. We report on recent progress in root-based erosion research, illustrate possibilities, caveats and limitations of reconstructed rates, and conclude with a call for further research on various aspects of root-erosion research and for work in new geographic regions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Becerril L.,Geological Survey of Spain | Galindo I.,Geological Survey of Spain | Gudmundsson A.,University of London | Morales J.M.,Geological Survey of Spain
Scientific Reports | Year: 2013

Many volcanic hazard factors-such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses-relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15âkm, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide.

Molina J.-L.,University of Salamanca | Pulido-Velazquez D.,Geological Survey of Spain | Garcia-Arostegui J.L.,Geological Survey of Spain | Pulido-Velazquez M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2013

Bayesian Networks (BNs) are powerful tools for assessing and predicting consequences of water management scenarios and uncertain drivers like climate change, integrating available scientific knowledge with the interests of the multiple stakeholders. However, among their major limitations, the non-transient treatment of the cause-effect relationship stands out. A Decision Support System (DSS) based on Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) is proposed here aimed to palliate that limitation through time slicing technique. The DSS comprises several classes (Object-Oriented BN networks), especially designed for future 5. years length time steps (time slices), covering a total control period of 30. years (2070-2100). The DSS has been developed for assessing impacts generated by different Climate Change (CC) scenarios (generated from several Regional Climatic Models (RCMs) under two emission scenarios, A1B and A2) in an aquifer system (Serral-Salinas) affected by intensive groundwater use over the last 30. years. A calibrated continuous water balance model was used to generate hydrological CC scenarios, and then a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) was employed in order to analyze the aquifer behavior under CC conditions. Results obtained from both models were used as input for the DSS, considering rainfall, aquifer recharge, variation of piezometric levels and temporal evolution of aquifer storage as the main hydrological components of the aquifer system. Results show the evolution of the aquifer storage for each future time step under different climate change conditions and under controlled water management interventions. This type of applications would allow establishing potential adaptation strategies for aquifer systems as the CC comes into effect. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Galindo I.,Geological Survey of Spain | Gudmundsson A.,Royal Holloway, University of London
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science | Year: 2012

Most volcanic hazards depend on an injected dyke reaching the surface to form a feeder. Assessing the volcanic hazard in an area is thus related to understanding the condition for the formation of a feeder dyke in that area. For this latter, we need good field data on feeder dykes, their geometries, internal structures, and other characteristics that distinguish them from non-feeders. Unfortunately, feeder dykes are rarely observed, partly because they are commonly covered by their own products. For this reason, outcrops are scarce and usually restricted to cliffs, ravines, and man-made outcrops. Here we report the results of a study of feeder dykes in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) and Iceland, focusing on their field characteristics and how their propagation is affected by existing structures. Although Holocene fissure eruptions have been common in both islands, only eleven basaltic feeder dykes have been identified: eight in Tenerife and three in Iceland. They are all well preserved and the relation with the eruptive fissure and/or the deposits is well exposed. While the eruptive fissures are generally longer in Iceland than in Tenerife, their feeders show many similarities, the main ones being that the feeder dykes (1) are generally sheet-shaped; (2) are segmented (as are the associated volcanic fissures); (3) normally contain elongated (prolate ellipsoidal) cavities in their central, topmost parts, that is, 2-3 m below the surface (with solidified magma drops on the cavity walls); (4) contain vesicles which increase in size and number close to the surface; (5) sometimes inject oblique dyke fingers into the planes of existing faults that cross the dyke paths; and (6) may reactivate, that is, trigger slip on existing faults. We analyse theoretically the feeder dyke of the 1991 Hekla eruption in Iceland. Our results indicate that during the initial peak in the effusion rate the opening (aperture) of the feeder dyke was as wide as 0.77 m, but quickly decreased to about 0.56 m. During the subsequent decline in the effusion rate to a minimum, the aperture decreased to about 0.19 m. At a later abrupt increase in the effusion rate, the feeder-dyke opening may have increased to about 0.34 m, and then decreased again as the effusion rate gradually declined during the end stages of the eruption. These thickness estimates fit well with those of many feeders in Iceland and Tenerife, and with the general dyke thickness within fossil central volcanoes in Iceland. © 2012 Author(s). CC Attribution 3.0 License.

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