Trondheim, Norway
Trondheim, Norway

Norwegian Geological Survey , abbr:NGU is a Norwegian government agency responsible for geologic mapping and research. The agency is located in Trondheim with an office in Tromsø, with about 225 employees. It is subordinate the Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Industry. Wikipedia.


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Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: NMP.2013.4.1-3 | Award Amount: 2.78M | Year: 2013

The Minerals4EU project is designed to meet the recommendations of the Raw Materials Initiative and will develop an EU Mineral intelligence network structure delivering a web portal, a European Minerals Yearbook and foresight studies. The network will provide data, information and knowledge on mineral resources around Europe, based on an accepted business model, making a fundamental contribution to the European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials (EIP RM), seen by the Competitiveness Council as key for the successful implementation of the major EU2020 policies.The Minerals4EU project will firstly establish the EU minerals intelligence network structure, comprising European minerals data providers and stakeholders, and transform this into a sustainable operational service. Minerals4EU will therefore contribute to and support decision making on the policy and adaptation strategies of the Commission, as well as supporting the security of EU resource and raw materials supply, by developing a network structure with mineral information data and products, based on authoritative of information sources.The Minerals4EU project is built around an INSPIRE compatible infrastructure that enables EU geological surveys and other partners to share mineral information and knowledge, and stakeholders to find, view and acquire standardized and harmonized georesource and related data. The target of the Minerals4EU project is to integrate the best available mineral expertise and information based on the knowledge base of member geological surveys and other relevant stakeholders, in support of public policy-making, industry, society, communication and education purposes at European and international levels. The Minerals4EU consortium possesses the skills and resources to make this the leading European mineral information network structure that will provide tools and expertise to enhance resource efficiency, minerals supply security and support sustainable mineral development for Europe.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2012.4.1-1 | Award Amount: 13.78M | Year: 2013

With numerous European industries heavily depended on imported REE raw materials, there is a need for EU to secure a viable supply of REE minerals as well as develop from the ground up the currently non-existent European REE extraction and processing industry. The goal of the EURARE project will be (i) to characterize the potential REE resources in Europe; and (ii) to research, develop, optimize and demonstrate technologies for the efficient and economically viable exploitation of currently available European REE deposits with minimum consequences to the environment. In the EURARE project, the mineral processing technologies currently used for the REEs minerals will be investigated for representative European REE ores, with a tendency for improvement by adopting new approaches for the complete ore utilization and minimal environmental consequences, establishing integrated mineral processing systems, with zero or close to zero tailings. The current state-of-the-art processes for REE extraction follows complicated, energy and resource intensive technologies. The EURARE project aims in developing novel cost-effective and resource-efficient REE extraction process, tailored specifically for European REE ore deposits as well as for European health, safety and environmental protection standards. As an added value to the work already described, EURARE will seek to demonstrate new sources for REE exploitation from industrial metallurgical waste which will not only be financial lucrative but will minimize the overall environmental footprint of the primary European metallurgical industry. Special attention in all cases will be given in health, safety and social issues, in light of naturally occurring radioactive elements. At the end of the EURARE project it is expected that a novel sustainable exploitation schema for Europes REE deposits will have been established


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.2.2 | Award Amount: 6.76M | Year: 2009

The overall objective of the Geo-Seas project is to effect a major and significant improvement in the overview and access to marine geological and geophysical data and data-products from national geological surveys and research institutes in Europe by upgrading and interconnecting their present infrastructures.The Geo-Seas partnership has taken a strategic decision to adopt the SeaDataNet interoperability principles, architecture and components wherever possible. This approach allows the Geo-Seas upgrading to gain instant traction and momentum whilst avoiding wasteful duplicative effort. It is envisaged that the SeaDataNet infrastructure will provide a core platform that will be adaptively tuned in order to cater for the specific requirements of the geological and geophysical domains. A range of additional activities for developing and providing new products and services is also undertaken in order to fulfill the diverse needs of end-user communities.


News Article | March 1, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Remains of microorganisms at least 3,770 million years old have been discovered by an international team led by UCL scientists, providing direct evidence of one of the oldest life forms on Earth. Tiny filaments and tubes formed by bacteria that lived on iron were found encased in quartz layers in the Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt (NSB), Quebec, Canada. The NSB contains some of the oldest sedimentary rocks known on Earth which likely formed part of an iron-rich deep-sea hydrothermal vent system that provided a habitat for Earth's first life forms between 3,770 and 4,300 million years ago. "Our discovery supports the idea that life emerged from hot, seafloor vents shortly after planet Earth formed. This speedy appearance of life on Earth fits with other evidence of recently discovered 3,700 million year old sedimentary mounds that were shaped by microorganisms," explained first author, PhD student Matthew Dodd (UCL Earth Sciences and the London Centre for Nanotechnology). Published today in Nature and funded by UCL, NASA, Carnegie of Canada and the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, the study describes the discovery and the detailed analysis of the remains undertaken by the team from UCL, the Geological Survey of Norway, US Geological Survey, The University of Western Australia, the University of Ottawa and the University of Leeds. Prior to this discovery, the oldest microfossils reported were found in Western Australia and dated at 3,460 million years old but some scientists think they might be non-biological artefacts in the rocks. It was therefore a priority for the UCL-led team to determine whether the remains from Canada had biological origins. The researchers systematically looked at the ways the tubes and filaments, made of haematite - a form of iron oxide or 'rust' - could have been made through non-biological methods such as temperature and pressure changes in the rock during burial of the sediments, but found all of the possibilities unlikely. The haematite structures have the same characteristic branching of iron-oxidising bacteria found near other hydrothermal vents today and were found alongside graphite and minerals like apatite and carbonate which are found in biological matter including bones and teeth and are frequently associated with fossils. They also found that the mineralised fossils are associated with spheroidal structures that usually contain fossils in younger rocks, suggesting that the haematite most likely formed when bacteria that oxidised iron for energy were fossilised in the rock. "We found the filaments and tubes inside centimetre-sized structures called concretions or nodules, as well as other tiny spheroidal structures, called rosettes and granules, all of which we think are the products of putrefaction. They are mineralogically identical to those in younger rocks from Norway, the Great Lakes area of North America and Western Australia," explained study lead, Dr Dominic Papineau (UCL Earth Sciences and the London Centre for Nanotechnology). "The structures are composed of the minerals expected to form from putrefaction, and have been well documented throughout the geological record, from the beginning until today. The fact we unearthed them from one of the oldest known rock formations, suggests we've found direct evidence of one of Earth's oldest life forms. This discovery helps us piece together the history of our planet and the remarkable life on it, and will help to identify traces of life elsewhere in the universe." Matthew Dodd concluded, "These discoveries demonstrate life developed on Earth at a time when Mars and Earth had liquid water at their surfaces, posing exciting questions for extra-terrestrial life. Therefore, we expect to find evidence for past life on Mars 4,000 million years ago, or if not, Earth may have been a special exception."


News Article | March 1, 2017
Site: astrobiology.com

Remains of microorganisms at least 3,770 million years old have been discovered by an international team led by UCL scientists, providing direct evidence of one of the oldest life forms on Earth. Tiny filaments and tubes formed by bacteria that lived on iron were found encased in quartz layers in the Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt (NSB), Quebec, Canada. The NSB contains some of the oldest sedimentary rocks known on Earth which likely formed part of an iron-rich deep-sea hydrothermal vent system that provided a habitat for Earth's first life forms between 3,770 and 4,300 million years ago. "Our discovery supports the idea that life emerged from hot, seafloor vents shortly after planet Earth formed. This speedy appearance of life on Earth fits with other evidence of recently discovered 3,700 million year old sedimentary mounds that were shaped by microorganisms," explained first author, PhD student Matthew Dodd (UCL Earth Sciences and the London Centre for Nanotechnology). Published today in Nature and funded by UCL, NASA, Carnegie of Canada and the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, the study describes the discovery and the detailed analysis of the remains undertaken by the team from UCL, the Geological Survey of Norway, US Geological Survey, The University of Western Australia, the University of Ottawa and the University of Leeds. Prior to this discovery, the oldest microfossils reported were found in Western Australia and dated at 3,460 million years old but some scientists think they might be non-biological artefacts in the rocks. It was therefore a priority for the UCL-led team to determine whether the remains from Canada had biological origins. The researchers systematically looked at the ways the tubes and filaments, made of haematite -- a form of iron oxide or 'rust' -- could have been made through non-biological methods such as temperature and pressure changes in the rock during burial of the sediments, but found all of the possibilities unlikely. The haematite structures have the same characteristic branching of iron-oxidising bacteria found near other hydrothermal vents today and were found alongside graphite and minerals like apatite and carbonate which are found in biological matter including bones and teeth and are frequently associated with fossils. They also found that the mineralised fossils are associated with spheroidal structures that usually contain fossils in younger rocks, suggesting that the haematite most likely formed when bacteria that oxidised iron for energy were fossilised in the rock. "We found the filaments and tubes inside centimetre-sized structures called concretions or nodules, as well as other tiny spheroidal structures, called rosettes and granules, all of which we think are the products of putrefaction. They are mineralogically identical to those in younger rocks from Norway, the Great Lakes area of North America and Western Australia," explained study lead, Dr. Dominic Papineau (UCL Earth Sciences and the London Centre for Nanotechnology). "The structures are composed of the minerals expected to form from putrefaction, and have been well documented throughout the geological record, from the beginning until today. The fact we unearthed them from one of the oldest known rock formations, suggests we've found direct evidence of one of Earth's oldest life forms. This discovery helps us piece together the history of our planet and the remarkable life on it, and will help to identify traces of life elsewhere in the universe." Matthew Dodd concluded, "These discoveries demonstrate life developed on Earth at a time when Mars and Earth had liquid water at their surfaces, posing exciting questions for extra-terrestrial life. Therefore, we expect to find evidence for past life on Mars 4,000 million years ago, or if not, Earth may have been a special exception." Reference: "Evidence for Early Life in Earth's Oldest Hydrothermal Vent Precipitates," M. S. Dodd, D. Papineau, T. Grenne, J. F. Slack, M. Rittner, F. Pirajno, J. O'Neil & C. T. S. Little, 2017 Mar. 1, Nature


Reimann C.,Geological Survey of Norway | de Caritat P.,Geoscience Australia
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

New geochemical data from two continental-scale soil surveys in Europe and Australia are compared. Internal project standards were exchanged to assess comparability of analytical results. The total concentration of 26 oxides/elements (Al2O3, As, Ba, CaO, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe2O3, Ga, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, Nb, Ni, P2O5, Pb, Rb, SiO2, Sr, Th, TiO2, V, Y, Zn, and Zr), Loss On Ignition (LOI) and pH are demonstrated to be comparable. Additionally, directly comparable data for 14 elements in an aqua regia extraction (Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mn, Mo, and Pb) are provided for both continents. Median soil compositions are close, though generally Australian soils are depleted in all elements with the exception of SiO2 and Zr. This is interpreted to reflect the generally longer and, in places, more intense weathering in Australia. Calculation of the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) gives a median value of 72% for Australia compared to 60% for Europe. Element concentrations vary over 3 (and up to 5) orders of magnitude.Several elements (total As and Ni; aqua regia As, Co, Bi, Li, Pb) have a lower element concentration by a factor of 2-3 in the soils of northern Europe compared to southern Europe. The break in concentration coincides with the maximum extent of the last glaciation. The younger soils of northern Europe are more similar to the Australian soils than the older soils from southern Europe. In Australia, the central region with especially high SiO2 concentrations is commonly depleted in many elements.The new data define the natural background variation for two continents on both hemispheres based on real data. Judging from the experience of these two continental surveys, it can be concluded that analytical quality is the key requirement for the success of global geochemical mapping. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 2.87M | Year: 2010

The main aim of the CASE Initial Training Network Programme is to train the next generation of European paleoclimate scientists via state-of-the-art training in marine biotic proxies and modelling of past climate changes. It will be implemented through a joint research project aiming to describe and identify the mechanisms and impacts of recent environmental changes in the Nordic Seas. The composition of the consortium reflects the various expertises on marine biotic indicators needed to efficiently evaluate the nature and amplitudes of oceanographic and climate changes and their implications on the structure of the marine ecosystem during the present interglacial, the Holocene. The project is designed according to specific expertises of each network participant and the contribution of associated industry partners, hereby providing an ideal setting for training actions to the benefit of early stage researchers (ESR). CASE will therefore address the following key scientific objectives: 1, Advance our fundamental understanding on the impact of various natural climatic forcing factors in high northern latitudes during the Holocene. 2, Obtain a more complete knowledge on Holocene natural variability of physical parameters affecting ecosystem processes and structure in the Nordic Seas. 3, Improve our understanding and quantification of Holocene changes in ocean circulation and climate variability of the Arctic and Subarctic domains. 4, Expand our knowledge of previous Holocene polar amplifications of warming. 5, Gain fundamental knowledge of the impact of global warming beyond the range of Holocene natural variability over the last 150 years on the Nordic Seas environmental system.


Broekmans M.A.T.M.,Geological Survey of Norway
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry | Year: 2012

More than seventy years have gone since the first recognition of deleterious alkali-aggregate reaction by Stanton in 1940, and a tremendous lot of research has been committed since, a small part of which is described above, summarized in below list: 1. deleterious AAR is a worldwide problem occurring on all continents, and new countries/regions are still added to the list as additional structures are being diagnosed with the damage mechanism. The irreparable character of AAR as a concrete property inherited from its main constituents, renders it an expensive one especially for large infrastructural works or any other type of structure designed with a long service life in mind; 2. alkalis Na and K are a natural part of the concrete composition, either inherited from the raw materials used for clinkering of the Portland cement, or infiltrated from seawater or deicers or other alkali-containing chemicals, or occasionally released from the aggregate upon exposure to the concrete interior; 3. several types of deleterious AAR are known. The most common and widespread is alkali-silica reaction ASR, less abundant is the alkali-carbonate reaction ACR that may either be 'cryptic ASR' from finely dispersed silica in carbonate rock which is deleterious, or a true reaction with carbonate which is non-deleterious. Both ACR and cryptic-ASR may occur in a given aggregate material; 4. the most abundant silica polymorph in the supracrustal rocks used for concrete aggregate is quartz, α-SiO 2. Additional alkali-reactive silica species include chert/flint, chalcedony and opal in sedimentary rocks, in volcanic rocks also cristobalite or tridymite, that may be important constituents in certain regions. Alkali-reactivity is affected by silica grain size, accessibility (e.g., internal porosity, permeability), and a range of properties and qualities known to govern the dissolution of quartz under geological conditions; 5. the alkali-silica reaction mechanism is very complicated and affected by the type of alkali-reactive silica and pore solution chemistry. Alkalis are regenerated by subsequent reactions rather than consolidated with the reaction products, and are thus available for further reaction; 6. alkali-silica reaction products have variable optical properties in thin section, morphology and chemical composition, related to position (inside the alkali-reactive particle, or in the paste), age, and natural variation in locally available 'starting materials' aggregate and cement. Inconsistent analytical setup as well as of reporting results complicates direct comparison of data from different sources; 7. the crystalline structure of ASR gel can be represented as consisting of kanemite domains of ∼10 Å, without long-range order between adjacent domains. The structure of the interstitial space between domains is presently unknown, but is assumed capable of accommodating additional water contributing to gel expansion; 8. alternative alkali-reactive species comprise natural and industrial glasses, as well as a range of common rock-forming silicate minerals and carbonates (also see point 3); 9. routine assessment of AAR concrete in a laboratory involves petrography on cores extracted from a damaged structure. Rigorous procedures are essential to minimize introduction of artifacts during extraction, handling, storage and assessment; 10. cracks and internal porosity can be visualized by impregnating plane and thin sections with fluorescent epoxy. The amount of AAR damage (and its progress over time) can be quantified with a number of alternative methods, the most accurate being time-robbing and hence costly, the quick-and-dirty alternatives being less expensive but less accurate; 11. assessment of bulk deleterious aggregate in set concrete is complicated by imperfect liberation, whether using chemical or mechanical procedures; 12. in situ analysis of ASR gel in thin section is complicated by a range of factors, most of which can be compensated for by rigorous specimen preparation procedures, fine-tuning instrument settings and operating conditions, and by critical post-processing of acquired data; 13. the crystallinity index for quartz QCI by Murata and Norman (1976) is a meaningless concept in its current form, and should be abandoned for the assessment of alkali-silica reactivity potential of concrete aggregate. Copyright © Mineralogical Society of America.


Redfield T.F.,Geological Survey of Norway
Journal of the Geological Society | Year: 2010

Combined with geological information, apatite fission track (AFT) data can impose valid thermal and temporal constraints. However, their uncritical interpretation may also lead to unsupported conclusions. Because fission tracks in apatite undergo measurable shortening even at surface temperatures, model artefacts can potentially be mistaken for geological cooling events. This problem can be especially acute when older fanning kinetic models are utilized instead of the newest curvilinear ones. In any circumstances, AFT model results must be interpreted with considerable caution and should rarely be considered to supersede conventional geological wisdom. The possibility that young cooling events are simply artefacts ought always to be entertained. As an example, this study considers AFT data and model results that have been cited to suggest that today's high mountains of West Greenland are erosional remnants of a landmass uplifted during the Neogene. However, in the best of circumstances the AFT data in question are heavily contaminated, and in the worst case they carry virtually no geological meaning. Although geological constraints require the faulted, westward-facing escarpment of West Greenland's Disko region to have been erected after commencement of sea-floor spreading in Baffin Bay, the AFT model-based hypothesis that it was constructed in purely Neogene time remains an unproven speculation. © 2010 Geological Society of London.


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

Iron-carbonate (white) rosette with concentric layers of quartz inclusions (grey) and a core of a single quartz crystal with tiny (nanoscopic) inclusions of red hematite from the Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt are seen in Québec, Canada (AFP Photo/Matt Dodd) Paris (AFP) - The oldest fossils ever found are "direct evidence" of life on Earth 3.8 to 4.3 billion years ago when our planet was still in its infancy, researchers reported Wednesday. Even at the lower end of the spectrum, "the microfossils we discovered are about 300 million years older" than any runners-up, said Dominic Papineau, a professor at University College London who made the discovery. The dating puts the fossils "within a few hundred million years of the accretion of the solar system," he said in a video statement. The results were published in the peer-reviewed journal Nature. The fact that life kick-started not long after Earth formed suggests it could also emerge on watery worlds outside our Solar System at comparable stages of formation, the scientists said. "If life happened so quickly on Earth, then could we expect it to be a simple process that could start on other planets?", asked lead author Matthew Dodd, a graduate student at the London Centre for Nanotechnology. Earth and Mars had liquid water on their surfaces at the same time, he noted. "We could expect to find evidence for past life on Mars four billion years ago," Dodd said. It may also be true, he added, that Earth was "just a special case." The tiny fossils -- half the width of a human hair and up to half-a-millimetre in length -- take the form of blood-red tubes and filaments formed by ocean-dwelling bacteria that fed on iron. Locked inside white, flower-like quartz structures known to harbour fossils, they were found along what were once warm-water vents on the ocean floor, most often in deep waters. Such iron-rich, hydrothermal systems exist today, and are home to bacteria that may be similar to those unearthed by Dodd and his colleagues. Known as the Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt, the site of the discovery contains some of the oldest sedimentary rocks known on Earth. They formed between 3.77 and 4.29 billion years ago, and may have been the habitat for the planet's first life forms. It is still not known when, or where, life on Earth began, but these deep-sea vents are seen as a good candidate. Earth is thought to be about 4.57 billion years old. Previous claims of super-ancient fossils have been challenged by scientists asking whether they are, in fact, natural mineral formations of some kind. "One of the big questions when it comes to early life studies is whether or not the organic carbon we find in these rocks is actually biological in origin," explained Dodd. The researchers used several methods to check, including laser-imaging to analyse the minerals associated with the organic material. The presence of two in particular -- apatite and carbonite -- provide strong evidence for life, they said. Moreover, the flower-like quartz structures in which the tubes and filaments are embedded have often been found in younger rock to contain traces of bacteria that consumed iron for energy. The possibility that the microfossils were forged by temperature and pressure changes as the sediment formed were also examined, and excluded. The new fossil find complements the recent discovery of 3.7-million year geological structures in Greenland called stromatolites. While not fossils, stromatolites are made by microbial colonies, and form in the sunlit surface waters of the ocean. The oldest microfossils previously reported were found in Western Australia and dated to 3.46 billion years ago, though some scientists say that these are not biological in origin. Several other research institutions contributed to the new study, including the Geological Survey of Norway, the US Geological Survey, and the University of Ottawa.

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