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Nirei H.,Geo pollution Control Agency | Furuno K.,Research Institute of Environmental Geology | Osamu K.,Research Institute of Environmental Geology | Satkunas J.,Geological Survey of Lithuania
Episodes | Year: 2012

Patterns and rates of deposition, migration and retention of pollutants in man-made strata depend on the depositional history and physical and chemical characteristics of the constituent materials. A sound understanding of the spatial and chronological relationships of materials is required for effective evaluation of solid, liquid and gaseous geo-pollution and design and understanding and interpretation of investigations of potentially contaminated land. Description of materials and boundaries requires clear terminology. A proposed terminology has been developed based on experience from a variety of sites in Japan including the experimental infilling of an old quarry. The terminology is commended for further discussion. geo-pollution and designing and undertaking investigations of potentially contaminated land. Discrimination of materials and boundaries in terms of time and properties requires a clear set of descriptive terms. This paper sets out a proposed terminology.

Geological mapping is based on determination of stratigraphy and genesis of Quaternary sediments. In turn, the climatostratigraphical events are basic for the stratigraphic correlation. The Middle Weichselian sequences in the Baltic region are being interpreted in various ways and are of great importance for assessing the extent of the early Middle Weichselian glaciation and palaeogeography of the terminals OIS 5, OIS 4, and OIS 3. Furthermore, Middle Weichselian palaeoenvironmental and chronostratigraphical investigations are essential for determining the timing of the initiation of the Late Weichselian glaciation. The results of the studies show the presence of nonglacial palaeoenvironments in Lithuania during the Middle Weichselian time interval 25-50 kyr. BP.

Nirei H.,Geo pollution Control Agency | Mezzano A.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Satkunas J.,Geological Survey of Lithuania | Furuno K.,Japan Branch of IUGS GEM | And 2 more authors.
Episodes | Year: 2014

Man-made strata occur throughout the world. Also locally called "fill" or "reclaimed land," most man-made strata were formed by industrial activity. Some strata are inert, well consolidated and properly "engineered" for their intended future use. Many other, however, are polluted, contaminated and potentially unstable owing to poor environmental management and monitoring. Such deposits are often stratigraphically complex and thus require site-specific geologic and geotechnical investigation to ensure ground stability and to avoid release of surface, subsurface and airborne pollutants. We have compared various investigative approaches from Uruguay, Lithuania, Japan and England; and therefore now strongly recommend that national, regional and local governments actively identify the magnitude of problems associated with man-made strata within their various jurisdictions. Based on varying terminology, concepts and political, administrative, legal, historical and geological contexts, we find it desirable to use fewer, but more rigorously defined and internationally agreed terms. Environmental assessments of man-made strata should be expanded throughout the world. It is, however, the more developed nations that currently have the greatest problems and costs associated with redevelopment of man-made strata. But such problems can be avoided in industrializing countries if they adopt best management practices, policies and priorities that strategically implement and enforce sound planning and environmental permitting. These procedures can ensure that man-made strata are suitable for their intended use by developing appropriate site investigation, modeling and remediation design, and by implementing appropriate monitoring and recording processes.

Brusatte S.L.,American Museum of Natural History | Brusatte S.L.,Columbia University | Butler R.J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Niedzwiedzki G.,Uppsala University | And 5 more authors.
Geological Magazine | Year: 2013

Fossils of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates from Lithuania and the wider East Baltic region of Europe have previously been unknown. We here report the first Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate fossils from Lithuania: two premaxillary specimens and three teeth that belong to Phytosauria, a common clade of semiaquatic Triassic archosauriforms. These specimens represent an uncrested phytosaur, similar to several species within the genera Paleorhinus, Parasuchus, Rutiodon and Nicrosaurus. Because phytosaurs are currently only known from the Upper Triassic, their discovery in northwestern Lithuania (the Šaltiškiai clay-pit) suggests that at least part of the Triassic succession in this region is Late Triassic in age, and is not solely Early Triassic as has been previously considered. The new specimens are among the most northerly occurrences of phytosaurs in the Late Triassic, as Lithuania was approximately 7-10° further north than classic phytosaur-bearing localities in nearby Germany and Poland, and as much as 40° further north than the best-sampled phytosaur localities in North America. The far northerly occurrence of the Lithuanian fossils prompts a review of phytosaur biogeography and distribution, which suggests that these predators were widely distributed in the Triassic monsoonal belt but rarer in more arid regions. Copyright © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

Janutyte I.,NORSAR | Janutyte I.,Vilnius University | Majdanski M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Voss P.H.,Geological Survey of Denmark | And 38 more authors.
Solid Earth | Year: 2015

The presented study aims to resolve the upper mantle structure around the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ), which is the major tectonic boundary in Europe. The data of 183 temporary and permanent seismic stations operated during the period of the PASsive Seismic Experiment (PASSEQ) 2006-2008 within the study area from Germany to Lithuania was used to compile the data set of manually picked 6008 top-quality arrivals of P waves from teleseismic earthquakes. We used the TELINV nonlinear teleseismic tomography algorithm to perform the inversions. As a result, we obtain a model of P wave velocity variations up to about ±3% with respect to the IASP91 velocity model in the upper mantle around the TESZ. The higher velocities to the east of the TESZ correspond to the older East European Craton (EEC), while the lower velocities to the west of the TESZ correspond to younger western Europe. We find that the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is more distinct beneath the Phanerozoic part of Europe than beneath the Precambrian part. To the west of the TESZ beneath the eastern part of the Bohemian Massif, the Sudetes Mountains and the Eger Rift, the negative anomalies are observed from a depth of at least 70 km, while under the Variscides the average depth of the seismic LAB is about 100 km. We do not observe the seismic LAB beneath the EEC, but beneath Lithuania we find the thickest lithosphere of about 300 km or more. Beneath the TESZ, the asthenosphere is at a depth of 150-180 km, which is an intermediate value between that of the EEC and western Europe. The results imply that the seismic LAB in the northern part of the TESZ is in the shape of a ramp dipping to the northeasterly direction. In the southern part of the TESZ, the LAB is shallower, most probably due to younger tectonic settings. In the northern part of the TESZ we do not recognize any clear contact between Phanerozoic and Proterozoic Europe, but further to the south we may refer to a sharp and steep contact on the eastern edge of the TESZ. Moreover, beneath Lithuania at depths of 120-150 km, we observe the lower velocity area following the boundary of the proposed paleosubduction zone. © Author(s) 2015.

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