Geological Survey of Lithuania

Vilnius, Lithuania

Geological Survey of Lithuania

Vilnius, Lithuania
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Hiyama T.,Osaka City University | Hiyama T.,Kanto Kensentsu Co. | Nirei H.,Japan Branch of IUGS GEM | Nirei H.,Geo pollution Control Agency | And 3 more authors.
Episodes | Year: 2017

Japan has a limited amount of readily developable land. Sites are used and reused with alternating phases of excavation and deposition of man-made strata (MMS). The Great East Japan earthquake of 11th March 2011 caused widespread damage due to ground waves and associated liquefaction-fluidization of MMS. A site at Kamisu City, Ibaraki Prefecture, was significantly affected. There, a gravel pit had been filled, partly excavated and then refilled. In 2003 it was found that a nearby drinking water well was seriously contaminated with arsenic. The site was sampled using a grid of boreholes and then excavated within a sheet pile enclosure at the source of the arsenic. The pollution came from large blocks that had been made by mixing cement with DiPhenylArsinic Acid powder and wastes that had been illegally dumped during refilling. The blocks were excavated and removed. Contaminated groundwater was pumped out and purified and the excavation was filled. The site was thought to be decontaminated, but the earthquake caused liquefaction-fluidization. Sand and water contaminated with arsenic were extruded onto the land surface through sand boils. After careful investigation of the site history and the depositional stages of the MMS it was found that arsenic had not been fully removed from MMS beneath the level containing the blocks because remediation works had been designed on the basis of grid sampling rather than an understanding the stratigraphy of, and discontinuities within and beneath, the MMS. The mechanism of DiPhenylArsinic Acid (DPAA) geopollution had not been properly understood. It is important to take history and stratigraphy of MMS into account when designing surveys and works.


Buynevich I.V.,Temple University | Savarese M.,Florida Gulf Coast University | Curran H.A.,Smith College | Bitinas A.,Klaipeda University | And 7 more authors.
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2017

Interaction of windblown sand with maritime vegetation, either as dune migration or episodic grain transport is a common phenomenon along many sandy coasts. Vegetation introduces antecedent surface roughness, especially when scaled to the landform height, but its role may be concealed if overwhelmed by aeolian incursion and burial. Where field observations and cores lack detail for characterizing this complex process, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) offers continuous visualization of aeolian sequences. Along the Curonian Spit, Lithuania, dune reactivation phases resulted in massive invasion of siliciclastic sand triggered by natural perturbations and land clearance. Massive (>30 m high) dunes entombed mature pine, oak, and alder stands and this process is ongoing. Mid-frequency (200 MHz) georadar surveys reveal landward-dipping lateral accretion surfaces interrupted by high-amplitude point-source anomalies produced by recently buried trees. In tropical regions, dense vegetation and potential for rapid lithification of carbonate sand results in more complex internal structures. Along the windward coast of San Salvador Island, the Bahamas, a massive dune has buried several generations of maritime scrubland, resulting in highly chaotic reflection pattern and high target density. On a nearby Little Exuma Island, numerous reentrants in aeolianites promoted formation of blowouts and incursion of windblown sand 10-25 m into a silver thatch palm forest. High-frequency (800 MHz) GPR images resolve diffractions from trunks and roots buried by > 2 m of oolitic sand. Basal refection morphology helps differentiate the irregular dune/beachrock surface from a smooth palm-frond mat. Aside from detecting and mapping buried vegetation, geophysical images capture its effect on sediment accumulation. This has the potential for differentiating its effect from other discordant structures within dunes (clasts, dissolution voids, trunk molds, burrows, and cultural remains). © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.


Vasarevicius S.,Vilnius Gediminas Technical University | Kadunas K.,Geological Survey of Lithuania | Baltrenaite E.,Vilnius Gediminas Technical University
Technological and Economic Development of Economy | Year: 2013

This work is aimed at addressing attention to the situation of contaminated sites and emphasizing importance and need for their rehabilitation. The study presents the experience gained by European countries evaluating contaminated sites and rehabilitation framework. A model of assessing contaminated sites in Lithuania consisting of two main stages - preliminary and detailed investigation has been developed. The first one is used for collecting preliminary information on the contaminated site and for evaluating the need for detailed analysis. The second is subjected to a comprehensive risk assessment of the site shifting focus on the environment and human health. The model for evaluating contaminated sites involves organic chemical materials and metals. Risk assessment depends on the sensitivity of a site to contamination. Equations for establishing the level of contamination involve the content of soil organic matter and clay. Correction coefficients used for calculating the level of contamination have been based on statistical analysis and experience gained by the EU countries. © 2013 Copyright Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press Technika.


Nirei H.,Geo pollution Control Agency | Furuno K.,Research Institute of Environmental Geology | Osamu K.,Research Institute of Environmental Geology | Satkunas J.,Geological Survey of Lithuania
Episodes | Year: 2012

Patterns and rates of deposition, migration and retention of pollutants in man-made strata depend on the depositional history and physical and chemical characteristics of the constituent materials. A sound understanding of the spatial and chronological relationships of materials is required for effective evaluation of solid, liquid and gaseous geo-pollution and design and understanding and interpretation of investigations of potentially contaminated land. Description of materials and boundaries requires clear terminology. A proposed terminology has been developed based on experience from a variety of sites in Japan including the experimental infilling of an old quarry. The terminology is commended for further discussion. geo-pollution and designing and undertaking investigations of potentially contaminated land. Discrimination of materials and boundaries in terms of time and properties requires a clear set of descriptive terms. This paper sets out a proposed terminology.


Janutyte I.,NORSAR | Janutyte I.,Vilnius University | Kozlovskaya E.,University of Oulu | Majdanski M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | And 41 more authors.
Solid Earth | Year: 2014

The presented study is a part of the passive seismic experiment PASSEQ 2006-2008, which took place around the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) from May 2006 to June 2008. The data set of 4195 manually picked arrivals of teleseismic P waves of 101 earthquakes (EQs) recorded in the seismic stations deployed to the east of the TESZ was inverted using the non-linear teleseismic tomography algorithm TELINV. Two 3-D crustal models were used to estimate the crustal travel time (TT) corrections. As a result, we obtain a model of P-wave velocity variations in the upper mantle beneath the TESZ and the East European Craton (EEC). In the study area beneath the craton, we observe up to 3% higher and beneath the TESZ about 2-3% lower seismic velocities compared to the IASP91 velocity model. We find the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the TESZ at a depth of about 180 km, while we observe no seismic LAB beneath the EEC. The inversion results obtained with the real and the synthetic data sets indicate a ramp shape of the LAB in the northern TESZ, where we observe values of seismic velocities close to those of the craton down to about 150 km. The lithosphere thickness in the EEC increases going from the TESZ to the NE from about 180 km beneath Poland to 300 km or more beneath Lithuania. Moreover, in western Lithuania we find an indication of an upper-mantle dome. In our results, the crustal units are not well resolved. There are no clear indications of the features in the upper mantle which could be related to the crustal units in the study area. On the other hand, at a depth of 120-150 km we indicate a trace of a boundary of proposed palaeosubduction zone between the East Lithuanian Domain (EL) and the West Lithuanian Granulite Domain (WLG). Also, in our results, we may have identified two anorogenic granitoid plutons.


Geological mapping is based on determination of stratigraphy and genesis of Quaternary sediments. In turn, the climatostratigraphical events are basic for the stratigraphic correlation. The Middle Weichselian sequences in the Baltic region are being interpreted in various ways and are of great importance for assessing the extent of the early Middle Weichselian glaciation and palaeogeography of the terminals OIS 5, OIS 4, and OIS 3. Furthermore, Middle Weichselian palaeoenvironmental and chronostratigraphical investigations are essential for determining the timing of the initiation of the Late Weichselian glaciation. The results of the studies show the presence of nonglacial palaeoenvironments in Lithuania during the Middle Weichselian time interval 25-50 kyr. BP.


Pacesa A.,Geological Survey of Lithuania
Baltica | Year: 2011

Seismological monitoring of Lithuania and adjacent territories was performed using the data of seismic network of Ignalina NPP. Only very few local tectonic events were registered during last decade of seismological monitoring. A few tens of local events were associated with explosions in quarries or explosions carried out during the operations for elimination of old explosives in the Baltic Sea. After the seismic system of Ignalina NPP was upgraded in 2008, the number of registered teleseismic and regional events haves increased up to a few hundred every year.


Kadunas K.,Geological Survey of Lithuania | Radiene R.,Geological Survey of Lithuania | Sugalskiene J.,Geological Survey of Lithuania
Baltica | Year: 2011

The investigation of the sources of groundwater pollution in Lithuania has started at the beginning of the seventies of the 20th century. In this short historical period, some stages of hydrogeological investigations could be marked out. The years 1963-1975 are linked with groundwater investigations in the territories of the largest Lithuanian cities (Klaipėda, Šiauliai, Panevėžys, Kaunas, and Vilnius). At that time, hydrogeological investigations were based on groundwater quality evaluation in dug wells. The collected data might be treated as background information on groundwater quality in urban territories. In 1976, when the program of evaluation of potential groundwater contamination sources was prepared and approved by the Geological Survey of Lithuania, a period of more intensive investigations started. The period 1976-1990 was fruitful for environmental hydrogeology. At that time, a network of groundwater monitoring was installed in the largest cities. The investigation of civil oil storages, filling stations and sanitary landfills became very intensive. A lot of job done in the sphere of generalization of the results and hydrogeochemical data (application to regional scale) could be pointed out as a distinctive feature of that stage. Since 1990, after the restoration of Lithuania's independence, the investigation of contaminated sites has intensified. A new Law on Environment monitoring followed by legislation of requirements for groundwater monitoring, investigation of contaminated sites, and inventory of potentially contaminated sites served as a background. Also the implementation of legislative measures stimulated further investigation. At present, more than 1200 sites have been investigated and more than 900 sites are obliged to monitor groundwater status.


Brusatte S.L.,American Museum of Natural History | Brusatte S.L.,Columbia University | Butler R.J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Niedzwiedzki G.,Uppsala University | And 5 more authors.
Geological Magazine | Year: 2013

Fossils of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates from Lithuania and the wider East Baltic region of Europe have previously been unknown. We here report the first Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate fossils from Lithuania: two premaxillary specimens and three teeth that belong to Phytosauria, a common clade of semiaquatic Triassic archosauriforms. These specimens represent an uncrested phytosaur, similar to several species within the genera Paleorhinus, Parasuchus, Rutiodon and Nicrosaurus. Because phytosaurs are currently only known from the Upper Triassic, their discovery in northwestern Lithuania (the Šaltiškiai clay-pit) suggests that at least part of the Triassic succession in this region is Late Triassic in age, and is not solely Early Triassic as has been previously considered. The new specimens are among the most northerly occurrences of phytosaurs in the Late Triassic, as Lithuania was approximately 7-10° further north than classic phytosaur-bearing localities in nearby Germany and Poland, and as much as 40° further north than the best-sampled phytosaur localities in North America. The far northerly occurrence of the Lithuanian fossils prompts a review of phytosaur biogeography and distribution, which suggests that these predators were widely distributed in the Triassic monsoonal belt but rarer in more arid regions. Copyright © 2012 Cambridge University Press.


Nirei H.,Geo pollution Control Agency | Mezzano A.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Satkunas J.,Geological Survey of Lithuania | Furuno K.,Japan Branch of IUGS GEM | And 2 more authors.
Episodes | Year: 2014

Man-made strata occur throughout the world. Also locally called "fill" or "reclaimed land," most man-made strata were formed by industrial activity. Some strata are inert, well consolidated and properly "engineered" for their intended future use. Many other, however, are polluted, contaminated and potentially unstable owing to poor environmental management and monitoring. Such deposits are often stratigraphically complex and thus require site-specific geologic and geotechnical investigation to ensure ground stability and to avoid release of surface, subsurface and airborne pollutants. We have compared various investigative approaches from Uruguay, Lithuania, Japan and England; and therefore now strongly recommend that national, regional and local governments actively identify the magnitude of problems associated with man-made strata within their various jurisdictions. Based on varying terminology, concepts and political, administrative, legal, historical and geological contexts, we find it desirable to use fewer, but more rigorously defined and internationally agreed terms. Environmental assessments of man-made strata should be expanded throughout the world. It is, however, the more developed nations that currently have the greatest problems and costs associated with redevelopment of man-made strata. But such problems can be avoided in industrializing countries if they adopt best management practices, policies and priorities that strategically implement and enforce sound planning and environmental permitting. These procedures can ensure that man-made strata are suitable for their intended use by developing appropriate site investigation, modeling and remediation design, and by implementing appropriate monitoring and recording processes.

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