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Copenhagen, Denmark

GEUS is an abbreviation for Danmarks og Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse, the Danish name for the independent sector research institute under the Ministry of Climate and Energy. The English name of this institute is Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, an advisory, research and survey institute in hydrogeology, geophysics, geochemistry, stratigraphy, glaciology, ore geology, marine geology, mineralogy, climatology, environmental history, air photo interpretation, geothermic energy fields concerning Denmark and Greenland.GEUS works in close corporation with Geologisk Institut and Geologisk Museum, both part of University of Copenhagen.It publishes a service paper called Greenland Hydrocarbon Exploration Information Service and a newsletter called Greenland Mineral Exploration Newsletter in co-operation with the Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum , a secretariat for the Joint Committee on Mineral Resources under Greenland’s home rule. Wikipedia.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-16-2014 | Award Amount: 3.00M | Year: 2015

The accelerated development of shale gas is accompanied by growing public concern regarding the safety of shale gas extraction and its impact on human health and the environment. For the US, shale gas exploitation proved very successful in changing the energy landscape in terms of security of domestic supply and increased contribution of gas in the energy mix. For Europe, shale gas exploitation could increase our resources and production of natural gas; a critical fuel for the transition to a low carbon energy system. However, there are a number of important gaps in our present understanding of shale gas exploration and exploitation, and a strong need for independent, science-based knowledge of its potential impacts in a European context. The M4ShaleGas program focuses on reviewing and improving existing best practices and innovative technologies for measuring, monitoring, mitigating and managing the environmental impact of shale gas exploration and exploitation in Europe. The technical and social research activities will yield integrated scientific recommendations for 1) how to minimize environmental risks to the subsurface, surface and atmosphere, 2) propose risk reduction and mitigation measures and 3) how to address the public attitude towards shale gas development. The 18 research institutes from 10 European Union Member States that collaborate in the M4ShaleGas consortium cover different geopolitical regions in Europe, including Member States that are at the forefront regarding shale gas exploration and exploitation in Europe as well as Member States where shale gas exploitation is not yet being actively pursued. The project governance ensures proper integration of all research activities. Knowledge and experience on best practices is imbedded by direct collaboration with US and Canadian research partners and input from representatives from the industry. During the project, results will be public and actively disseminated to all stakeholders.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-11d-2015 | Award Amount: 5.40M | Year: 2016

Five of the 20 raw materials identified by the European Commission as critical are commonly found in association with alkaline rocks and carbonatites (heavy and light rare earth elements, niobium, fluorspar, and phosphate). Other elements increasingly important for hi-tech applications, and found in these rocks include hafnium (Hf), tantalum (Ta), scandium (Sc) and zirconium (Zr). In fact, there is a greater chance of a carbonatite complex having resources economic to mine than any other rock type (about 20 active mines in ca. 500 known carbonatite complexes). Less than 3% of critical raw materials supply is indigenous to the EU. However, deposits are known and exploration is ongoing in parts of northern Europe. In central and southern Europe the presence of abundant alkaline volcanic rocks indicates the likelihood that deposits exist within about a km of the surface. This project will make a step-change in exploration models for alkaline and carbonatite provinces, using mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry, and state-of-the-art interpretation of high resolution geophysics and downhole measurement tools, to make robust predictions about mineral prospectivity at depth. This will be achieved through studies at seven key natural laboratories, combined with Expert Council workshops. The results will be incorporated into new geomodels on multiple scales. In contrast to known deposits, Europe is well endowed with expertise. The project brings together industry partners involved in exploration, geophysics and environmental assessment with two geological surveys, a major museum and five universities. The results will make Europe the world leader in this specialist area. They will give the four SME industry partners world-leading expertise to develop and expand their businesses, transferring their business expertise from Africa to Europe. The project will help give European hi-tech industry the confidence to innovate in manufacturing using critical raw materials.

The glaciers in the Melville Bay region of northwest Greenland have shown a mean retreat since the earliest observations at the beginning of the 20th century. The largest, Steenstrup Gletscher, has retreated ∼ 20 km, partly during the period of atmospheric cooling 1940-80. Melville Bay airtemperature observations starting in 1981 indicate a regional change of +0.20° Ca -1. This exceeds the warming on the east coast of Greenland, confirming the west coast to be a region of relatively large change, also in a global perspective. The largest temperature increase is observed in the winter months (0.3-0.4° Ca-1). Results from a 4 year (2004-08) net ablation record obtained by an automatic weather station (AWS) near the calving front of Steenstrup Gletscher show an ablation rate that is relatively low for a low-elevation position on the Greenland ice sheet (2.4m ice equivalent per year). A first-order estimate from positive degree-day totals suggests that net ablation has roughly doubled since the 1980s. A surface energy and mass-balance model is applied to the Steenstrup AWS data to quantify the energy flux contributions to surface melt. Solar radiation is the main source for melt energy, but, due to shortwave radiation penetration into the ice, only one-third of the melt takes place at the glacier surface; nearly two-thirds occurs within the upper ice layers. Source

The Palaeoproterozoic Nagssugtoqidian Orogen extends over 250. km along the east coast of Greenland around the settlement of Tasiilaq. The orogen includes Archaean rocks from the adjoining Rae Craton to the north and the North Atlantic Craton to the south, and Palaeoproterozoic rocks. The Rae Craton consists of orthogneiss and amphibolite included in the Schweizerland and Kuummiut Terranes, and is tectonically overlain in the Kuummiut Terrane by ca. 2100-2200. Ma units that include marble, meta-pelite and -psammite and amphibolite assigned to the Helheim and Kuummiut units. The Kuummiut Terrane was probably subducted underneath the SE-trending ca. 1885. Ma Ammassalik Intrusive Complex, which has a high-temperature metamorphic halo and is characterised by a change from sinistral faulting to pure shear deformation. The southern Isortoq Terrane consists of medium-pressure amphibolite facies bimodal meta-volcanic and <1910. Ma meta-sedimentary rocks assigned to the Kap Tycho Brahe unit, which is in tectonic contact with orthogneiss and amphibolite of the North Atlantic Craton.The rocks of the Kuummiut Terrane were tectonically imbricated in ENE-verging structures during ca. 1870. Ma high-pressure metamorphism. This was followed by NE-SW convergence and close to orthogonal extrusion in the weakened crust, which is characterised by partial melting during decompression. The rocks of the Isortoq Terrane were imbricated in a SE-vergent thrust and ramp system either during oblique subduction of the Kuummiut Terrane or an earlier tectonic stage elsewhere. NE-SW compression, as in the northern terranes, formed SW-vergent thrust systems and folds. This was most likely caused by a change in the regional stress field during collision between ca. 1870 and 1820. Ma. In the north, the Schweizerland Terrane was juxtaposed to the Kuummiut Terrane in southeasterly direction, causing refolding of earlier structures in the lower amphibolite facies. This hinteland-type of deformation was possibly related to tectonism in western Greenland. The latest recognised deformation event was during ca. 1740-1680. Ma associated with NE-SW extension, which is interpreted as orogenic collapse. The complex structural evolution of the orogen was caused by oblique convergence during WSW-directed subduction, the convergence of irregularly shaped cratons and the change of the regional stress field from ENE-WSW to NW-SE during progressive collisional tectonics between the two Archaean cratons. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Nielsen A.T.,Copenhagen University | Schovsbo N.H.,Geological Survey of Denmark
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2011

Lower Cambrian successions described from Scandinavia are reviewed and subjected to sequence stratigraphical analysis; comparisons are also made with successions described from northeast Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The treated stratigraphic interval is bounded upwards by a regional unconformity ascribed to the Hawke Bay Event.The East European regional stage classification, comprising the Rovnian, Lontovan, Dominopolian, Ljubomlian, Vergalian, Rausvian and Kibartian, is adopted for the Lower Cambrian of Scandinavia. These units are approximately equivalent to the Terreneuvian and Cambrian provisional series 2. The Rovnian and Lontovan stages are pre-trilobitic. The Dominopolian and 'Ljubomlian' stages encompass the '. Rusophycus' and Schmidtiellus mickwitzi zones; whether the former zone is of pre-trilobitic age is uncertain but possible. The 'Ljubomlian' is treated informally because the definition adopted in this paper does not correspond to the original concept of the stage. The Vergalian and Rausvian are for the time being classified as one combined stage. The lower main part of the Vergalian-Rausvian corresponds to the new informal Holmia kjerulfi-'Ornamentaspis' linnarssoni zone, whereas the upper part is separated as the new informal Comluella?-Ellipsocephalus lunatus zone. This zone also includes the Kibartian Stage. Volborthella and poorly known olenellid trilobites range into the Kibartian and the stage is considered of Early Cambrian age. The Holmia inusitata Zone is abandoned; it is contemporaneous with the traditional '. O.' linnarssoni Zone.The autochthonous strata underlying the Hawke Bay unconformity in the Laisvall sector, Swedish Lapland, are assigned to the Laisberg and Grammajukku formations and it is proposed to abandon the Laisvall and Såvvare formations. The Laisberg Fm can locally be divided into the Ackerselet, Saivatj, Maiva, Kautsky Ore, Tjalek, Nadok Ore and Assjatj members. The Vakkejokk Breccia near Luopakte is likely impact related.Sequences are defined as transgressive-regressive depositional cycles bounded by maximum regressive surfaces and their correlative conformities. Sea-level rises are identified by fining-upward lithologies, cratonwards shifts in facies and depocentres, formation of widespread thin lime- and ironstones as well as precipitation of phosphorite and glaucony; the latter formed at remarkably shallow depth in comparison with the modern world. Sea-level falls are identified by coarsening-upwards lithologies, basinwards shifts in facies and gaps in the sedimentary record relating to non-deposition/erosion during falling stage and lowstand. Due to the pronounced clastic starvation neither lowstand nor highstand system tracts are developed subsequent to the earliest transgressive phases and eustasy was the primary control on depth changes.The Lower Cambrian comprises two supersequences (2nd order sequences), separated by regional subaerial unconformities reflecting the Rispebjerg Lowstand (new name) and the Hawke Bay Event. The Rispebjerg Lowstand was likely glacio-eustatic. Supersequence 1 (Rovnian-Lontovan-Dominopolian-'Ljubomlian') comprises about nine 3rd order sequences but the exact number of sequences in the Lontovan is unsettled. Supersequence 2 (Vergalian-Rausvian-lower Kibartian) comprises five sequences. Two or more subsequences (new term = 4th order sequences) are recognized in all sequences but long-distance correlation is usually difficult. The sequence stratigraphical resolution of the Lower Cambrian is more than twice as high as the acritarch biozonation.Baltica became intensively peneplained during the Neoproterozoic and was by and large completely flat at the dawn of the Cambrian. The profound Early Cambrian sea-level rise, comprising a series of individual 3rd order drowning events, was associated with step-wise transgression of Baltoscandia and concomitantly the sedimentary supply declined. The sequence stratigraphical analysis indicates onset of marine deposition in northernmost Germany and the most distal Middle Allochthon of southern Norway possibly during the Rovnian and in Scania-Bornholm, NE Poland, Jämtland (Lower Allochthon) and Valdres (Lower Allochthon) during the Lontovan. Marine deposition commenced in the Mjøsa District (Lower Allochthon) as well as in Swedish Lapland (Autochthon) during the Dominopolian, and the transgression reached southernmost Gotland early in the Vergalian-Rausvian, whereas Öland, northern Gotland, central Sweden and the Autochthon of the Mjøsa District and Jämtland-western Dalarna were flooded slightly later. The northern Baltic Sea-Bothnian Bay and western Finland were flooded lastly (late Vergalian-Rausvian). A narrow land area straddled the axis of mainland Sweden even during maximum transgression in the latest Early Cambrian. The Digermul area was essentially inundated all through the late Ediacaran-Early Cambrian and represents a Timanide foreland basin.The first Cambrian transgression in the East Baltic area took place in a post-rift sag-basin that formed above the Volhyn-Orcha Rift System during the Rovnian-Lontovan. The rift system inverted during the Dominopolian associated with the formation of a narrow marginal trough centred in the easternmost Baltic Sea. This event was in turn followed by the formation of a wider secondary marginal trough during the early Vergalian-Rausvian, affecting the Öland-Gotland area, and at the same time causing mild uplift of the primary marginal trough in the East Baltic sector. A third sub-regional subsidence event during the late Vergalian-Rausvian stage was centred in the Bothnian Sea and also affected western Finland, parts of south-central Sweden, and the northern Baltic Sea. The Hedmark Basin in southern Norway was seemingly also subjected to mild inversion during the earliest Cambrian. The mentioned subsidence and uplift events were in the size order of a few tens of metres to maximum a few hundreds of metres.The flooding pattern is illustrated in a series of 10 palaeogeographical maps reconstructed for Scandinavia and the East Baltic area including western Russia, western Belorussia, northeast Poland and northwestern Ukraine. The mapping is based on assessment of some 700 data-points in the region. Isopach maps for selected units have also been compiled. The mapping reveals that several of the tectonic windows in the Norwegian-Swedish mountain chain represent original basement highs.The most significant 3rd order sea-level changes are named for easy reference, including the Hadeborg Drowning (Lontovan), Brantevik Drowning (basal Dominopolian), Snogebæk Lowstand (Dominopolian), Norretorp-1 Drowning (Dominopolian), Mid Norretorp Lowstand (terminal Dominopolian), Norretorp-2 Drowning (basal 'Ljubomlian'), Rispebjerg Lowstand (end 'Ljubomlian'), Gislöv Drowning (basal Vergalian-Rausvian), Evjevik-1 Drowning (Vergalian-Rausvian), Evjevik-2 Drowning (Vergalian-Rausvian) and the När Lowstand (Rausvian/Kibartian transition). © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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