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Nury S.N.,Geological Survey of Bangladesh | Zhu X.,Monash University | Cartwright I.,Monash University | Ailleres L.,Monash University
Management of Environmental Quality | Year: 2010

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a three dimensional (3D) geological model, based on geographic information system (GIS), of the Barwon Downs Graben aquifer system in Victoria, Australia, and to visualize the complex geometry as a decision support tool for sustainable water management. Design/methodology/approach: A 3D visualization of the aquifer is completed, based on subsurface geological modelling. The existing borehole database, hydrogeological data, geological information and surface topography are used to model the subsurface aquifer. ArcGIS 9.2 is employed for two-dimensional (2D) GIS analysis and for 3D visualization and modelling geological objects computer aided design (GOCAD) 2.5.2 is used. The developed methodology of ArcGIS and GOCAD is implemented for creating the 3D geological model of the aquifer system. Findings: The 3D geomodel of the Barwon Downs Graben provides a new perspective of the complex subsurface aquifer geometry and its relation with surface hydrogeology in a more interactive manner. Considering the geometry, estimated volume of the unconfined Eastern View aquifer is as 0.83 × 1010 m3 and for the confined aquifer is about 1.02 × 1010 m3. The total volume of overlying strata of this aquifer is about 3.09 × 1010 m3. The water resources of the study area are affected by the pumping from this aquifer. This is also significantly influenced by the geometry of the Graben. Originality/value: The 3D model utilises comprehensive and generally available datasets in the public domain. Although the used 3D geomodelling tools are mainly developed for applications in the petroleum industry, the current paper shows its ability to be adapted to hydrogeological investigations. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Rogers K.G.,Vanderbilt University | Goodbred S.L.,Vanderbilt University | Khan S.R.,Geological Survey of Bangladesh
Marine Geology | Year: 2015

The Swatch of No Ground (SoNG) canyon in the Bay of Bengal is a shelf-incising submarine canyon that is actively aggrading in its upper reaches despite regular gravity-driven transport and mass wasting. Although the canyon lies 150km downdrift of its main sediment source, the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) river mouth, high sedimentation rates (5-50cmyear-1) are sustained by both progradation of the subaqueous delta into the canyon head and the conveyance of shelf-generated hyperpycnal flows to the canyon floor. This rapid accretion appears to be largely balanced by mass failures triggered by regularly occurring storms, and less frequently by major earthquakes. Here we use high-resolution sub-bottom sonar data to elucidate dominant sediment-dispersal pathways and their transport-related morphology at the canyon head; these include: 1) a laterally prograding clinoform that intersects the canyon head at water depths of 20-120m; 2) several shelf-incising bypass gullies that originate in <20m water depth above the rollover point and connect the inner shelf to the canyon floor, and 3) numerous U-shaped slide valleys formed by deep-seated mass failures initiating at water depths >50m. The clinoform deposits reflect westward progradation of the GBM subaqueous delta into the upper canyon, where its axis-normal orientation leaves it dissected by cross-cutting gullies and mass failures. The morphology and acoustic stratigraphy of the gullies, coupled with strong bed shear and high suspended sediment concentrations on the inner shelf, suggest that these features are sustained by the regular conveyance of gravity-driven fluid muds that are formed in shallow water (<20m) where the gullies originate. The downslope termination of the gullies coincides with a break in slope at the canyon floor, indicating that gullies serve as sediment conduits linking shallow water processes with sediment deposition in the lower canyon. Together these locally interacting shelf, clinoform, and canyon features form a unique composite morphodynamic system that more broadly defines the highstand connection between this large fluvial delta system and its shelf-indenting canyon. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Goodbred S.L.,Vanderbilt University | Paolo P.M.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Ullah M.S.,Vanderbilt University | Pate R.D.,Vanderbilt University | And 4 more authors.
Bulletin of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2014

Three main rivers-the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna-coalesce in the Bengal basin to form the world's largest delta system, which serves as filter and gateway between the Himalayan collision and vast Bengal fan repository. New insights into the Holocene construction of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, with a focus on river sedimentation, channel migration, and avulsion history, are presented here using the Sr geochemistry of bulk sediments as a provenance tracer. The sediment load of each river transmits a distinct Sr signature owing to differences in source rocks from the Himalaya, Tibet, and local regions, allowing for effective tracking of river channels and stratigraphic development within the delta. In the early Holocene, vigorous delta aggradation occurred under rapid sea-level rise and high river discharge and supported the construction of sand-dominated stratigraphy by laterally mobile, braided-stream channels. However, the vertically (i.e., temporally) uniform, but geographically distinct, Sr signatures from these deposits indicate that the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna fl uvial systems remained isolated from one another and apparently constrained within their lowstand valleys. By the mid-Holocene, though, delta stratigraphy records spatially and temporally nonuniform Sr signatures that hallmark the onset of avulsions and unconstrained channel migration, like those that characterize the modern Ganges and Brahmaputra fl uvial systems. Such mobility developed in the mid-Holocene despite declining discharge and sea-level rise, suggesting that earlier channel behavior had been strongly infl uenced by antecedent topography of the lowstand valleys. It is only after the delta had aggraded above the valley margins that the fl uvial systems were able to avulse freely, resulting in numerous channel reorganizations from mid-Holocene to present. These channel-system behaviors and their role in delta evolution remain coarsely defined based only on this initial application of Sr-based provenance tools, but the approach is promising and suggests that a more complete understanding can be achieved with continued study. © 2014 Geological Society of America.

Islam A.R.M.T.,Begum Rokeya University | Islam A.R.M.T.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Habib M.A.,Geological Survey of Bangladesh
International Journal of Geophysics | Year: 2015

A total of 13 seismic sections were used for 2D seismic interpretation in order to assess the subsurface geometry of gas sand horizons and hydrocarbon prospect of the Rashidpur structure, Surma Basin, Bangladesh. Out of five reflectors, two selected reflectors were mapped for the study. The top of the Upper Gas Sand (R3) reflector was elongated in N-S with the axis swinging slightly to the east on the northern plunge. North-South trending thrust fault was identified in the eastern part which is parallel to the axial line of the structure. The reflection patterns of the gas sand horizons were parallel to each other and similar in nature. The reflection coefficients were positive at the base and negative at the top of the each gas sand horizons. Velocity dropped from 2562 m/s to 2177 m/s in the Upper Gas Sand (R3) and 4320 m/s to 3413 m/s in the Lower Gas Sand (R5) reflector. Bright spot and amplitude anomalies were identified on the top of the both gas sand horizons. The result depicts that the shape of the gas sand horizons is asymmetric anticline. The structure is compressed and elongated NNW-SSE trending anticline. The study reveals hydrocarbon potentiality of the structure. © 2015 Abu Reza Md. Towfiqul Islam and Md. Ahosan Habib.

Aftabuzzaman M.,University of Rajshahi | Kabir S.,Geological Survey of Bangladesh | Islam M.K.,University of Rajshahi | Alam M.S.,University of Rajshahi
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2013

Pleistocene red soil horizons were exposed in different areas of the Barind Tract in north-west Bangladesh. X-ray diffractions of twenty seven samples from different depths of these soil horizons revealed that the soil horizons consisted of kaolinite, illite and chrysotile with significant amount of opal-CT. Samples from Maddhapara, Bogra, and Nachole contain kaolinite, illite, quartz and opal-CT, and the samples from Kantabari contain chrysotile instead of kaolinite. Clay mineral compositions of different soil horizons indicated two different types of clay assemblages, viz. (a) illitekaolinite and (b) illite-chrysotile. In the village of Kantabari, illite-chrysotile clay mineral assemblage indicate that soil horizons were formed under low temperatures with alkaline and reducing conditions. However, other soil horizons of illite-kaolinite clay mineral assemblage indicate that soils were possibly formed under humid, temperate and welldrained conditions. These two soil horizons were formed under different geochemical, geomorphological and climatic conditions from different parent materials. Scanning Electron Microscopy photographs showing the presence of glass shards and no opal-A were found using XRD, suggesting that the opal-A might not be a precursor to opal-CT in the red soil horizon of the study area. This opal-CT along with the general lack of fossils and presence of glass shards was indicative of a volcanogenic rather than biogenic origin for the Opal-CT in the study area, and X-ray fluorescence data reveals higher percentages of silica which is comparable to the Toba Ash of Toba Caldera, Indonesia of about 75,000 B.P. © 2013 Geological Society of India.

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