Geological Museum of China

Beijing, China

Geological Museum of China

Beijing, China
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Zhou Z.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Lu L.,Geological Museum of China | Feng J.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Li T.,Huanggang Mining Co.
Acta Petrologica Sinica | Year: 2010

Huanggang large tin-iron skarn deposit, Inner Mongolia, is located in the Huanggangliang-Ulanhot tin-lead-zinc-copper polymetallic belt, South Daxinganling. In this paper, five molybdenite samples separated from the Huanggang skarn ore bodies are used for Re-Os dating and obtained the model ages ranging from 134.6 ± 2.0 to 136.5 ± 1.9Ma, averaging 135.31 ± 0.85Ma. High Re content of molybdenite indicates that mantle fluid is involved in mineralization process. The mineralization of the Da Hinggan Mts area is mainly in Mesozoic Yanshanian, there are two ore-forming eruptive periods, i. e. , ca. 140 - 130Ma and 180 - 160Ma, while the tin-lead-zinc- copper-silver polymetallic deposits related with the small intrusion in Yanshanian under lithospheric extensional and thinning environment mainly occurred in ca. 140-130Ma; the molybdenum-lead-zinc-copper-aurum polymetallic deposits related with the postcollision orogeny of Siberia plate and North China plate in Early Yanshanian mainly occurred in ca. 180-160Ma. Huanggang tin-iron deposit is the product of large-scale mineralization under the paleo-Pacific plate subduction environment.

Zhou Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Lu L.,Geological Museum of China | Yang Y.,Huanggang Mining Co. | Li T.,Huanggang Mining Co.
Acta Petrologica Sinica | Year: 2010

Huanggang tin-iron deposit. Inner Mongolia, is an important deposit of the South Daxinganling metallogenic belt LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating results show that the K-feldspar granite and granite-porphyry in the Huanggang rocks were formed at 136.7 ± 1.1 Ma and 136.8 ±0.57Ma, respectively. The Huanggang granites are characterized by SiO 2 content (66.81%∼77.39% ) , Al 2O 3content ( 11.33%∼14.54%) , and significant depletion of magnesium, high ALK (5.65% ∼10.67%) , the K 2O/Na 2O values format a range of 0.32 to 10.53, averaging 2.78. The chondrite-nomalized REE pattern shows LREE enrichment, strong negative Eu anomalies, and δEu at 0.03 to 0.20. The high field strength elements such as Zr, Hf and lithophile elements such as Rb, U and Th are enriched, whereas the elements P, Ti, Ba and Sr are significantly depleted and their have similar Y/Nb values ( > 1.2) to those of oceanic island basalts. These features are coincident with the typical A1 within-plate anorogenic granite. Its genesis might be ascribed to the underplating of the mantle-derived magma which caused younger crust partial melting to form granitic magma within the lithosphère extension environment, and its magma source are related to the crust-mantle mixed remelting.

Yao Y.-F.,CAS Institute of Botany | Bruch A.A.,Senckenberg Institute | Cheng Y.-M.,Geological Museum of China | Mosbrugger V.,Senckenberg Institute | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Yuanmou Basin of Yunnan, SW China, is a famous locality with hominids, hominoids, mammals and plant fossils. Based on the published megaflora and palynoflora data from Yuanmou Basin, the climate of Late Pliocene is reconstructed using the Coexistence Approach. The results indicate a warm and humid subtropical climate with a mean annual temperature of ca. 16-17°C and a mean annual precipitation of ca. 1500-1600 mm in the Late Pliocene rather than a dry, hot climate today, which may be due to the local tectonic change and gradual intensification of India monsoon. The comparison of Late Pliocene climate in Eryuan, Yangyi, Longling, and Yuanmou Basin of Yunnan Province suggests that the mean annual temperatures generally show a latitudinal gradient and fit well with their geographic position, while the mean annual precipitations seem to be related to the different geometries of the valleys under the same monsoon system. © 2012 Yao et al.

Liyong J.,Jilin University | Jun C.,Jilin University | Jun C.,Key Laboratory of Evolution of Past Life and Environment in Northeast Asia | Shuqin Z.,Geological Museum of China | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology | Year: 2010

The Quantou Formation of Jilin Province, People's Republic of China, has recently yielded an important new fauna of 'middle' Cretaceous vertebrates. This fauna includes the small-bodied cerapodan ornithischian dinosaur Changchunsaurus parvus, represented by excellent cranial and postcranial material. When initially described, Changchunsaurus was hypothesed to represent one of the most basal known ornithopods; however, similarities to ceratopsians were also noted, suggesting that Changchunsaurus may be crucial to elucidating the interrelationships of basal cerapodans, one of most problematic areas of ornithischian phylogeny. Here we present a detailed description of the craniodental anatomy of Changchunsaurus, rediagnose the taxon based upon three autapomorphies, and provide comparisons to other basal cerapodans, as a foundation for future studies of basal cerapodan relationships. Changchunsaurus shows strong similarities to the Chinese Early Cretaceous cerapodan Jeholosaurus, and it is likely that they are sister taxa. © 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

Su Y.,China University of Geosciences | Su Y.,Inner Mongolia Normal University | Zhang Z.,Geological Museum of China | Hong Y.,Beijing Museum of Natural History
Insect Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2012

Two new ancient griffenflies, members of the Qilianshan Entomofauna from the Namurian B-C (Upper Carboniferous) of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, are described. One species, Sinierasiptera jini Zhang, Hong & Su, sp.n., is placed in a new family Sinierasipteridae within Neodonatoptera, and the other, Paragilsonia orientalis Zhang, Hong & Su, sp.n., in Meganeuridae (Tupinae). The phylogenetic position of the new family Sinierasipteridae is discussed. © 2012 by Koninklijke Brill N.V., Leiden, The Netherlands.

Zhang Z.,Geological Museum of China | Schneider J.W.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Hong Y.,Beijing Museum of Natural History
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology | Year: 2013

The most ancient known roach, Qilianiblatta namurensis gen. et sp. nov. from the earliest Pennsylvanian (Namurian B/C) Qilianshan entomofauna, is described from material excavated in the Qilianshan Mountains of north-western China. The new genus is characterized by a mosaic of plesiomorphic and apomorphic features typical of various Euramerican and Angaran Late Palaeozoic blattid genera. Despite a limited time gap between the age of Q. namurensis and that of the previously known oldest blattids (archimylacrids of Westphalian A age, 1-2 Ma younger), the pattern of main veins and cross venation of Q. namurensis appears in some regards more advanced. This is particularly apparent in the only weakly expressed primary dichotomy of main veins and the relatively modern aspect of the cross venation. The new taxon raises questions regarding the polyphyletic origin of the 'phyloblattoid' groundplan, namely once in the Euramerican biotic province at the end of the Westphalian and stemming from archimylacrids, and earlier in the Cathaysian (-Angaran?) biotic province from forms like Qilianiblatta. Forewings of Q. namurensis are clearly protective wings (tegmina) and probably were not involved directly in the production of lift during flight. These wings are considerably advanced relative to the earliest diversification of the winged insects and the general groundplan for hexapodan wings. It is possible that winged blattids appeared as early as the Devonian. © 2013 Natural History Museum.

Zan S.,Geological Museum of China | Axsmith B.J.,University of South Alabama | Escapa I.,CONICET | Fraser N.C.,National Museums of Scotland | And 2 more authors.
Palaeoworld | Year: 2012

Remains of the extinct sphenophyte (horsetail) . Neocalamites are most widespread in the Middle-Upper Triassic and are typically represented by stem and leaf fragments. Here we report on spectacular new finds of . Neocalamites from the Late Triassic Yangcaogou Formation in Liaoning Province, China that include bedding surfaces dominated by nearly complete aerial stems with attached leaf whorls and rare bractless cones. They reveal a monopodial growth habit for the stems, which are covered with downward projecting prickles that probably provided protection against herbivores. These features provide the basis for a new proposed species, . Neocalamites horridus. The nodes bear whorls of very long leaves mainly free to their bases, and one specimen bears an attached cone on a long peduncle. Identical dispersed cones have also been recovered. The leaves of adjacent monopodial stems most likely interlocked to support growth in large stands akin to the role now played by branches in large modern . Equisetum species. The new Chinese . Neocalamites is among the most confidently reconstructed species, and indicates a greater diversity of sphenophyte morphology during the Mesozoic than previously realized. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

Lu L.S.,Geological Museum of China | Mao J.W.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Zhou Z.H.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Li H.B.,Geological Museum of China | And 2 more authors.
Acta Petrologica Sinica | Year: 2012

Systematic studies on the mineralogy of the ore-bearing ultramafic rocks from the Hongqiling Nos.1 and 7 intrusions in east Jilin Province show that the rocks mainly consist of chrysolite, bronzite, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, hornblende and phlogopite. These minerals were crystallized from magma at different depths. In particular, olivine and pyroxene are the best rock-forming minerals that crystallized firstly from the primary magma and could be used to trace the magma, which were derived from the upper mantle. The parental magmas of these intrusions in the intermediate magma chamber are hydrated high-Mg picritic basalt magma and the MgO content were estimated to be about 13.98% and 14.22% with Mg of 72.22 and 71.05 respectively. The depth of the deep-level magma chamber, where only olivine and pyroxene fractional crystallization processes took place ephemerally, was estimated to be about 26 ∼27km. The temperature of magma chamber was 1280 ∼ 1379CC .When magma uplifted from the deep-level to the high-level chamber, this process was nearly adiabatic and completed in a short time. Then, magma maybe experienced double chamber evolutions. Meanwhile, olivine and less pyroxene fractional crystallizations were over before the uplift of magma.But, there was complex process in high-level magma chamber, where crust contamination, mixing with affinal magma and super cooling have been happened. These processes contribute to the increase of ore-forming elements and the saturation of sulfide in the magmatic system, thus Ni-Cu mineralization occurs in the intrusions.

Jiao L.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Yin Y.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Cheng Y.,Geological Museum of China | Jiang X.,Chinese Academy of Forestry
Holzforschung | Year: 2014

Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg is an evergreen tree and produces agarwood used for incense and as a uniquely precious medicine. It is in danger of disappearing due to illegal logging and its identification and protection is crucial. However, it is difficult or impossible to distinguish A. sinensis from other species of the genus Aquilaria Lam. and its closely related genus Gyrinops Gaertn. based on wood anatomical characteristics. Probably, DNA barcoding technology might provide an improvement in species identification. In this study, wood samples were tested, which were submitted to high-temperature drying and were stored for a long period in a xylarium. The factors should be identified that hinder the efficiency of wood DNA extraction from this species. The results indicate that the DNA from the wood tissues could be successfully amplified, apart from some DNA regions from the heartwood of the dried samples and the xylarium samples. The DNA sequences from the wood tissues mostly matched with the sequences of A. sinensis deposited in the GenBank. Moreover, analyses of phylogenetic trees based on trnL-trnF and ITS1 regions indicated that the wood tissues in the tests clustered together with the A. sinensis species from the GenBank, with bootstrap values of 74% and 94%, respectively. Consequently, it is feasible to identify A. sinensis wood on a species level based on the DNA barcoding technology. © 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston 2014.

Zeng G.,Nanjing University | Chen L.-H.,Nanjing University | Hu S.-L.,Nanjing University | Xu X.-S.,Nanjing University | Yang L.-F.,Geological Museum of China
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2013

Although peridotite xenoliths are common in alkaline basalts, it is still unclear whether the chemical compositions of their host rocks have been affected by these mantle fragments and, if so, what processes are involved in this alteration of the host basalts. Here, we document a kind of xenolith-rich alkaline basalts from the Nanjing basaltic field, eastern China. These basalts contain lower concentrations of CaO (4.1-7.8 wt %) and Sc (3.3-17.8 ppm) and have lower Ca/Al (0.3-0.6) and higher Na/Ti ratios (2.8-11.2) than other Cenozoic basalts in this area. These xenolith-rich basalts show good correlations between elemental ratios (e.g., Lu/Hf and Ca/Al) and εHf values, which are indicative of mixing of two distinct components during the genesis of the magmas that formed these basalts: a high-εHf end-member (with low Lu/Hf and Ca/Al ratios) and the primitive melt-related low-εHf end-member. In addition, peridotite xenoliths hosted in these basalts have distinct core-mantle textures, with the margins having higher modal olivine abundances (70%) than the xenolith cores (52%). Within the xenolith margins, some orthopyroxenes are enclosed in the olivines, and all clinopyroxenes are sponge textured. These sponge-textured clinopyroxenes have higher CaO and Sc concentrations, higher Ca/Al ratios, and lower Na/Ti ratios than clinopyroxenes within the cores of the xenoliths, suggesting that the xenoliths underwent low-pressure melting within the host magma. This indicates that xenolith-rich magmas within the study area were contaminated during ascent by melts derived from mantle xenoliths within the magmas, transforming the magmas into the low-Ca alkaline basalts. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

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