Geological and Mining Institute of Spain IGME

Madrid, Spain

Geological and Mining Institute of Spain IGME

Madrid, Spain
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Jodar J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Cabrera J.A.,Geological and Mining Institute of Spain IGME | Martos-Rosillo S.,Geological and Mining Institute of Spain IGME | Ruiz-Constan A.,Geological and Mining Institute of Spain IGME | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2017

Aquifers in permeable formations developed in high-mountain watersheds slow down the transfer of snowmelt to rivers, modifying rivers' flow pattern. To gain insight into the processes that control the hydrologic response of such systems the role played by groundwater in an alpine basin located at the southeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula is investigated. As data in these environments is generally scarce and its variability is high, simple lumped parameter hydrological models that consider the groundwater component and snow accumulation and melting are needed. Instead of using existing models that use many parameters, the Témez lumped hydrological model of common use in Spain and Ibero-American countries is selected and modified to consider snow to get a simplified tool to separate hydrograph components. The result is the TDD model (Témez-Degree Day) which is applied in a high mountain watershed with seasonal snow cover in Southern Spain to help in quantifying groundwater recharge and determining the groundwater contribution to the outflow. Average groundwater recharge is about 23% of the precipitation, and groundwater contribution to total outflow ranges between 70 and 97%. Direct surface runoff is 1% of precipitation. These values depend on the existence of snow. Results are consistent with those obtained with chloride atmospheric deposition mass balances by other authors. They highlight the important role of groundwater in high mountain areas, which is enhanced by seasonal snow cover. Results compare well with other areas. This effect is often neglected in water planning, but can be easily taken into account just by extending the water balance tool in use, or any other, following the procedure that has being developed. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Haque U.,University of Florida | Blum P.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | da Silva P.F.,New University of Lisbon | Andersen P.,University of Bergen | And 18 more authors.
Landslides | Year: 2016

Landslides are a major hazard causing human and large economic losses worldwide. However, the quantification of fatalities and casualties is highly underestimated and incomplete, thus, the estimation of landslide risk is rather ambitious. Hence, a spatio-temporal distribution of deadly landslides is presented for 27 European countries over the last 20 years (1995–2014). Catastrophic landslides are widely distributed throughout Europe, however, with a great concentration in mountainous areas. In the studied period, a total of 1370 deaths and 784 injuries were reported resulting from 476 landslides. Turkey showed the highest fatalities with 335. An increasing trend of fatal landslides is observed, with a pronounced number of fatalities in the latest period from 2008 to 2014. The latter are mostly triggered by natural extreme events such as storms (i.e., heavy rainfall), earthquakes, and floods and only minor by human activities, such as mining and excavation works. Average economic loss per year in Europe is approximately 4.7 billion Euros. This study serves as baseline information for further risk mapping by integrating deadly landslide locations, local land use data, and will therefore help countries to protect human lives and property. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

de la Hera A.,Geological and Mining Institute of Spain IGME | Gurrieri J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Puri S.,International Association of Hydrogeologists | Custodio E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Manzano M.,Technical University of Cartagena
Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology | Year: 2016

This paper presents a review on the integration of hydrological, ecological and hydrogeological processes into Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) practice. These processes, for example, interact and take part in the process of creation of groundwater-related wetlands, which are an important part of the Earth's biodiversity. Tools for integrating water and ecosystems are presented, with emphasis on the hydrogeological aspects as often they are poorly considered. Recent pioneering projects (IGCP-604, UNESCO-IHP, GENESIS, and Groundwater Governance) developed models for the future integration of ecosystem health with groundwater exploitation. An IWRM approach where groundwater-related wetlands and the groundwater systems upon which they depend are included in conjunctive water management decisions can be an accepted and workable paradigm that will benefit present and future generations. © 2016 European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

Llamas M.R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Custodio E.,University of Barcelona | de la Hera A.,Geological and Mining Institute of Spain IGME | Fornes J.M.,Geological and Mining Institute of Spain IGME
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

For many years there has been a general consensus on the need to consider surface and groundwater together to achieve the more general paradigm of integrated water resource management. Nevertheless, in many countries this goal is far from being achieved in practice as in Spain, presented here. Much of continental and insular Spain conditions are semi-arid, making it the most arid country in the European Union (EU). The use of groundwater for urban water supply and irrigation is therefore relevant, especially along the Mediterranean coast, the south and the center, and in the islands. There is however divergence between the reality of groundwater use and the attitude of many policy makers who do not consider it and favor other water resources, traditionally surface water and recently seawater desalination, in many parts of Spain. This mindset of the governmental water planners influenced the 1985 water code and also affected the implementation in Spain of the EU Water Framework Directive 2000. Although some improvements have been made, overall groundwater management is still chaotic in some aspects. A significant handicap is that although in theory groundwater is in the public domain, most of it remains in private hands. Water planning also relies on concessions and this creates stressful situations and problems which are difficult to solve. In this paper some significant aspects of groundwater policy are outlined, such as its role in mitigating the effects of climate variability and change, the water mining of aquifers, the associations of groundwater users, and the groundwater ecosystems. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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