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Haque U.,University of Florida | Blum P.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | da Silva P.F.,New University of Lisbon | Andersen P.,University of Bergen | And 18 more authors.
Landslides | Year: 2016

Landslides are a major hazard causing human and large economic losses worldwide. However, the quantification of fatalities and casualties is highly underestimated and incomplete, thus, the estimation of landslide risk is rather ambitious. Hence, a spatio-temporal distribution of deadly landslides is presented for 27 European countries over the last 20 years (1995–2014). Catastrophic landslides are widely distributed throughout Europe, however, with a great concentration in mountainous areas. In the studied period, a total of 1370 deaths and 784 injuries were reported resulting from 476 landslides. Turkey showed the highest fatalities with 335. An increasing trend of fatal landslides is observed, with a pronounced number of fatalities in the latest period from 2008 to 2014. The latter are mostly triggered by natural extreme events such as storms (i.e., heavy rainfall), earthquakes, and floods and only minor by human activities, such as mining and excavation works. Average economic loss per year in Europe is approximately 4.7 billion Euros. This study serves as baseline information for further risk mapping by integrating deadly landslide locations, local land use data, and will therefore help countries to protect human lives and property. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

de la Hera A.,Geological and Mining Institute of Spain IGME | Gurrieri J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Puri S.,International Association of Hydrogeologists | Custodio E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Manzano M.,Technical University of Cartagena
Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology | Year: 2016

This paper presents a review on the integration of hydrological, ecological and hydrogeological processes into Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) practice. These processes, for example, interact and take part in the process of creation of groundwater-related wetlands, which are an important part of the Earth's biodiversity. Tools for integrating water and ecosystems are presented, with emphasis on the hydrogeological aspects as often they are poorly considered. Recent pioneering projects (IGCP-604, UNESCO-IHP, GENESIS, and Groundwater Governance) developed models for the future integration of ecosystem health with groundwater exploitation. An IWRM approach where groundwater-related wetlands and the groundwater systems upon which they depend are included in conjunctive water management decisions can be an accepted and workable paradigm that will benefit present and future generations. © 2016 European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

Llamas M.R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Custodio E.,University of Barcelona | de la Hera A.,Geological and Mining Institute of Spain IGME | Fornes J.M.,Geological and Mining Institute of Spain IGME
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

For many years there has been a general consensus on the need to consider surface and groundwater together to achieve the more general paradigm of integrated water resource management. Nevertheless, in many countries this goal is far from being achieved in practice as in Spain, presented here. Much of continental and insular Spain conditions are semi-arid, making it the most arid country in the European Union (EU). The use of groundwater for urban water supply and irrigation is therefore relevant, especially along the Mediterranean coast, the south and the center, and in the islands. There is however divergence between the reality of groundwater use and the attitude of many policy makers who do not consider it and favor other water resources, traditionally surface water and recently seawater desalination, in many parts of Spain. This mindset of the governmental water planners influenced the 1985 water code and also affected the implementation in Spain of the EU Water Framework Directive 2000. Although some improvements have been made, overall groundwater management is still chaotic in some aspects. A significant handicap is that although in theory groundwater is in the public domain, most of it remains in private hands. Water planning also relies on concessions and this creates stressful situations and problems which are difficult to solve. In this paper some significant aspects of groundwater policy are outlined, such as its role in mitigating the effects of climate variability and change, the water mining of aquifers, the associations of groundwater users, and the groundwater ecosystems. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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