Alakangas L.J.,Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company |
Alakangas L.J.,Linnaeus University |
Mathurin F.A.,Linnaeus University |
Wallin B.,Geokema AB |
Astrom M.E.,Linnaeus University
Aquatic Geochemistry | Year: 2014
Several countries are preparing to dispose of radioactive nuclear waste deep underground in crystalline rock. This type of bedrock is commonly extensively fractured and consequently carries groundwater that serves as a medium for transporting metals and radionuclides. A group of metals of particular interest in this context is the rare earth elements (REEs), because they are analogues of actinides contained within radioactive waste and are tracers of hydrological pathways and geochemical processes. Concentrations of REEs are commonly low in these groundwaters, leading to values below detection limits of standard monitoring methods, particularly for the heavy REEs. We present a new technical set-up for monitoring REEs (and other trace metals) in groundwater in fractured crystalline rock. The technique consists of passing the fracture groundwater, commonly under high pressure and containing reduced chemical species, through a device that maintains the physicochemical character of the groundwater. Within the device, diffusive gradient in thin-film (DGT) discs are installed in triplicate. With this set-up, we studied REEs in groundwater in fractures at depths of approximately -144, -280, and -450 m in granitoids in the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in southern Sweden. The entire REE suite was detected (concentrations down to 0.1 ng L-1) and was differently fractionated among the groundwaters. The shallowest groundwater, composed of dilute modern Baltic Sea water, was enriched in the heavy REEs, whereas the deeper groundwaters, dominated by old saline water, were depleted in the heavy REEs. Deployment periods varying from 1 to 4 weeks delivered similar REE concentrations, indicating stability and reproducibility of the experimental set-up. The study finds that 1 week of deployment may be enough. However, if the overall setting and construction allow for longer deployment times, 2-3 weeks will be optimal in terms of reaching reliable REE concentrations well above the detection limit while maintaining the performance of the DGT samplers. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Wallin B.,Geokema AB |
Peterman Z.,ZEP Consulting LLC
Groundwater | Year: 2015
Integrated isotopic and hydrochemical studies of groundwater at Äspö, Sweden, support mixing models involving deep saline water, low-solute infiltration, and Baltic Sea water. Carbon, oxygen, and strontium isotope analyses of calcite fracture fillings indicate that paleohydrologic conditions were different than those of today in terms of the isotopic composition of water flowing through fractures. Sr isotopes of whole-rock and mineral (plagioclase, microcline, biotite, and epidote) samples are used to assess the effects of water-rock interaction. Biotite is a major reactant in the early stages of water-rock interaction. Strontium isotope systematics of groundwater from deep in the Hard Rock Laboratory, and underground research facility, and from low conductivity zones revealed a first order mixing line defined by a high-chloride saline component with 66mg/L Sr and an ancient sea water component with approximately 4.5mg/L. Dilution with low salinity recharge has produced groundwater with variable Sr contents and 87Sr/86Sr values between 0.7186 and 0.7160. Differences between Äspö and Laxemar groundwater are shown by trends in Sr concentrations plotted against 87Sr/86Sr. The Äspö trend shows increasing 87Sr/86Sr values with increasing concentrations of Sr, whereas the Laxemar groundwater trend shows little variability in 87Sr/86Sr with increasing Sr concentrations. These trends are controlled by the differences in 87Sr/86Sr composition of the saline end members in the two areas. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.