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Rueil-Malmaison, France

Raucoules D.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres | Raffard D.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres | Rohmer J.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres | Loschetter A.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Remote Sensing

This article proposes to test the feasibility of long-term surface deformation monitoring based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry on carbon dioxide (CO2) storage sites with land cover representative of potential European injection sites (agricultural or forests with minimum built-up land cover). Because no operational injection site is currently active in Europe, a SAR data set (based on EnviSAT–ASAR spaceborne data) is simulated by combining SAR scenes acquired over a potential future European injection site with deformation measurements from SAR analysis carried out on the In-Salah (Algeria) CO2 injection demonstrator site. The study shows that under such conditions, both persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) and diffuse scatterer (DS) interferometry appear insufficient to provide a sufficiently dense measurement network to characterize surface deformation correctly. Alternative solutions, to be investigated in further studies, include the use of data archives with shorter acquisition time spans (e.g. Sentinel-1 data when available) or installation of corner reflectors. The cost of the latter mixed space/ground solution must be evaluated with respect to conventional ground-based measurement methods in the proposed context. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Fluid injection in deep sedimentary porous formations might induce shear reactivation of reservoir faults. In this paper, we focus on 'blind' 1000-m-long normal faults (with limited shear displacement c.a. 1 m), which can hardly be detected using conventional seismic surveys, but might potentially enable leakage pathways. In this study, a blind sub-seismic fault was assumed in the vicinity of a CO2 injection well (c.a. 1 km). The study area is in the eastern part of the Paris Basin and targeting the Lower Triassic Sandstone formation which is deemed adequate for CO2 injection. The arbitrary geometry of the fault (with limited throw c.a. 1 m), was set across the expected migration pathway of the injected CO2. The fault is assumed to extend vertically between the storage and control aquifer. A modeling approach coupling fluid flow and geomechanics is used to assess the pressure impact of the CO2 injection on in-situ fluids and formations. The model extends vertically from the Permian base to the ground surface assuming all layers to be homogeneous except in the storage aquifer where the heterogeneities of the braided channel environment are accounted for. The fault zone is modeled with heterogeneities both in the fault core and damage zones and the control aquifer and is explicitly gridded in the numerical model. In this study the fault core heterogeneities are assumed to be correlated to the Shale Gouge Ratio of the fault.The simulation scenarios aimed for a continuous CO2 injection at a rate of 0.8 Mtpa during 30 years. When assuming the fault does not modify the formation flow and mechanical parameters, very little upward migration of CO2 is computed outside of the storage aquifer. This is not the case when the fault modifies the formation flow and mechanical parameters. In the latter case, the CO2 migrates up to the control aquifer preferably through the fault damage zones rather than through the fault core due to the parameter selection. In both cases, the pressure increase due to CO2 injection in the storage aquifer is small which imply small changes in effective stresses and negligible induced ground deformations. Most of the stress changes are limited to the vicinity of the fault and injection well. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Roussanaly S.,Sintef | Bureau-Cauchois G.,GEOGREEN | Husebye J.,Sintef
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control

This paper summarizes key results from the Collaborative COCATE Project for the European Commission (FP7). The costs of transporting a total of 13.1 MtCO2/y from small- to large-scale emitters around Le Havre (France), to Rotterdam (Netherlands) via onshore pipeline or shipping are evaluated. Sources send emissions to five CO2 capture centres, which are then linked via a 40km long collection network to deliver the treated CO2 to the point of export. This network was designed to accommodate peak flow rates and multiple network designs were considered for the various export scenarios evaluated in the study. The economic evaluation established that conditioning CO2 at the cluster level, rather than at the point of export, and transporting it in dense phase was the most cost-effective solution for both export systems. As for exporting the CO2 from Le Havre to Rotterdam, the evaluation highlighted three potential transport solutions: either onshore via one 24in. or one 28in. diameter pipeline or offshore using three ships with effective capacities of 30,000m3 each. The onshore pipeline options proved to be 10% cheaper than the shipping scenario. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the onshore options remained the best choice. © 2013 . Source

Coussy P.,French Institute of Petroleum | Roussanaly S.,French Institute of Petroleum | Roussanaly S.,Sintef | Bureau-Cauchois G.,GEOGREEN | Wildenborg T.,TNO
Energy Procedia

The COCATE project is a three-year collaboration project under the EU 7th framework program for research. One of the objective of COCATE project is to tackle the problems of rolling out a shared transportation infrastructure capable of connecting geological storage sites with various CO2 emitting industrial facilities. An economic model based on a dynamic linear programming system was developed, which all along the analyzed period of deployment of CO2 network, matches the capacity left in each storage site with the CO2 transported flow rates, in order to decide how, when and where to invest in a transport facility. The model defines in this way an optimized transport network system, with the only objective of minimizing the overall costs of CO2 transport. Five case studies were developed leading to find a cost optimized network between 3 sources of different emission profiles, 3 sinks of different capacities, with 2 defined harbours. The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. and/or peer-review under responsibility of GHGT. Source

Rohmer J.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres | Loschetter A.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres | Raucoules D.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres | de Michele M.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres | And 2 more authors.
Engineering Geology

The performance of Permanent Scatterers PS Interferometry (PSI) analysis is highly limited where the presence of large vegetated cover (agricultural terrains/forests) reduces signal coherence. A possible solution relies on the installation on ground of artificial devices (Corner Reflectors CR) to complement the existing PS network. Yet, the number of such CRs (spatial density typically ~1/km2) can be limited when the deformation pattern affects a large area (tens of km2) especially for CO2 geological storage in open aquifers. In order to support the surveillance of such sites, we address here the question of how to estimate the spatio-temporal distribution of the ground displacements over the whole area using only the sparse CR+PS network. We propose to test the feasibility of the Geostatistics Output Perturbation (GOP) method, enabling to combine: 1. The results of the reservoir model calibrated on the limited number of ground displacements' time series and, 2. The spatial correlation between such calibrated results and the observations. A test case was constructed using the signal measured during CO2 injection (from 2004-2009) in the KB501 well of the In-Salah site, Algeria at only a few tens of spatial measurement points either corresponding to: 1. a "realistic" PS network selected in a highly vegetated region in western France or 2. a series of CR selected through a space-filling criterion. The comparison with the observations over the whole area confirmed that 80% of the temporal observations were fitted by the GOP method over the region defined by the CR network with a density of ~1CR/km2. Comparisons with the calibrated model results and with the direct application of a spatio-temporal kriging confirmed the better performance of GOP as well. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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