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Le Gallo Y.,Geogreen | Carballo T.A.,Géostock
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Europec Featured at 78th EAGE Conference and Exhibition | Year: 2016

Within the European context, CO2 storage operations shall address the potential impacts of large scale CO2 storage through risk assessment. The key risks identified for this onshore CO2 storage site were the migration through faults and ground deformation. To quantify the CO2 migration along a fault, flow modelling and uncertainties management codes are coupled to compute the failure probability i.e. the probability of CO2 migration towards a control aquifer. Such probability of failure is characterized by low to very low probability of occurrence which requires a large number of simulations to enable its evaluation. Each failure scenario models the CO2 migration from a storage aquifer to a control aquifer when altering the flow properties of the fault zone. Fault failure analyses are performed on the surrogate models. They show that limited CO2 migration is occurring along the fault but no breakthrough in the control aquifer. The injection induces some pressure disturbance in the control aquifer in about 30% of the cases which lead to effective stress changes. To quantify effective stress changes due to CO2 injection and the subsequent ground deformation, the mechanical responses of the different sediment layers are modeled coupling flow and geomechanics. The impact of the stress changes on porosity and permeability of the storage reservoir is modeled along with the impact of uncertainties of the mechanical parameters. For this onshore CO2 storage site study case, the expected ground displacement is negligible (below the limit of the measurement capabilities). Copyright 2016, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Coussy P.,French Institute of Petroleum | Roussanaly S.,French Institute of Petroleum | Roussanaly S.,Sintef | Bureau-Cauchois G.,GEOGREEN | Wildenborg T.,TNO
Energy Procedia | Year: 2013

The COCATE project is a three-year collaboration project under the EU 7th framework program for research. One of the objective of COCATE project is to tackle the problems of rolling out a shared transportation infrastructure capable of connecting geological storage sites with various CO2 emitting industrial facilities. An economic model based on a dynamic linear programming system was developed, which all along the analyzed period of deployment of CO2 network, matches the capacity left in each storage site with the CO2 transported flow rates, in order to decide how, when and where to invest in a transport facility. The model defines in this way an optimized transport network system, with the only objective of minimizing the overall costs of CO2 transport. Five case studies were developed leading to find a cost optimized network between 3 sources of different emission profiles, 3 sinks of different capacities, with 2 defined harbours. The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. and/or peer-review under responsibility of GHGT.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-15-2015 | Award Amount: 12.49M | Year: 2016

To meet the ambitious EC target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) needs to move rapidly towards full scale implementation with geological storage solutions both on and offshore. Onshore storage offers increased flexibility and reduced infrastructure and monitoring costs. Enabling onshore storage will support management of decarbonisation strategies at territory level while enhancing security of energy supply and local economic activities, and securing jobs across Europe. However, successful onshore storage also requires some unique technical and societal challenges to be overcome. ENOS will provide crucial advances to help foster onshore CO2 storage across Europe through: 1) Developing, testing and demonstrating in the field, under real-life conditions, key technologies specifically adapted to onshore storage. 2) Contributing to the creation of a favourable environment for onshore storage across Europe. The ENOS site portfolio will provide a great opportunity for demonstration of technologies for safe and environmentally sound storage at relevant scale. Best practices will be developed using experience gained from the field experiments with the participation of local stakeholders and the lay public. This will produce improved integrated research outcomes and increase stakeholder understanding and confidence in CO2 storage. In this improved framework, ENOS will catalyse new onshore pilot and demonstration projects in new locations and geological settings across Europe, taking into account the site-specific and local socio-economic context. By developing technologies from TRL4/5 to TRL6 across the storage lifecycle, feeding the resultant knowledge and experience into training and education and cooperating at the pan-European and global level, ENOS will have a decisive impact on innovation and build the confidence needed for enabling onshore CO2 storage in Europe.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2011.5.2-1 | Award Amount: 5.33M | Year: 2011

ULTimateCO2 will 1) significantly advance our knowledge of specific processes that could influence the long-term (LT) fate of geologically stored CO2 and 2) yield validated tools for predicting LT storage site performance. The 4-year collaborative programme will cover detailed lab, field and modelling studies of the main physical & chemical processes involved and their impacts in the LT: a) trapping mechanisms in the reservoir (structural, dissolution, residual, mineral), b) fluid-rock interactions and effects on mechanical integrity of fractured caprock and faulted systems and c) leakage due to mechanical & chemical damage in the well vicinity. Integration of the results will enable an assessment of overall LT behaviour of storage sites at regional scale in terms of efficiency & security, also including other important aspects, e.g. far-field brine displacement and fluid mixing. The LT prediction of CO2 evolution during geological storage will thus become more robust, not only by addressing the uncertainty associated with numerical modelling, but also by applying realistic contexts and scales. The latter will be ensured through close collaboration with at least two demonstration sites in deep saline sandstone formations: the onshore NER300 Ouest Lorraine candidate in France (ArcelorMittal GeoLorraine) and the offshore EEPR Hatfield site in UK (National Grid). ULTimateCO2 will develop recommendations for operators and regulators to enable a robust demonstration of the assessment of LT storage site performance. Scientific knowledge on the LT efficiency and safety of CO2 storage will be disseminated widely to a broad audience, so that not only operators of demo sites will benefit, but also other stakeholder groups, including policy makers and regulators, storage developers, investors, the scientific community, and representatives of the general public (NGOs and CCS initiatives), thus helping to improve public understanding.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2009.5.2.2 | Award Amount: 4.56M | Year: 2010

All ongoing projects on CO2 transport are focusing on CO2 coming from power plants having their own CO2 capture process. No single project considers multiple different smaller sources. The technical problems involved are different, due to the multiple combination of fumes and CO2 mixtures; further, the need of a low pressure pooling network adds additional complexity to the problem. The objective of this project is to study the particular problem involved in combining such small emitters. Some geographical zones are already considering grouping the fumes collected from different emitters in order to reduce treatment costs. This is the case for the Le Havre (France) and Rotterdam (Netherlands) CCS projects. Both could be part of a future CCS demonstration projects network. Flue gases could stream to common CO2 capture facilities, and CO2 could be collected and shipped at a large scale to storage sites. In COCATE we address safety, lifetime and economic issues, in order to fill and explore the following technological gaps: -Impurities: thermodynamic studies -Corrosion: coatings, impurities impact, modelling -Dynamic transport instabilities, simulation tool, modelling: network management -Simulation of critical onshore and offshore failure predicting flow behaviour and environmental impact (high pressure), physical modelling: risk assessment -Applicable macro and micro economical business models. The project deliverables will directly support companies (both technically and through a risk framework) that will have to apply CCS processes. This will be achieved by a strong link between research organisations and industries from 4 EU countries and 1 CSLF country. The application of different export scenarios based on Le Havre and Rotterdam real cases, considering pipes or boats and different storage sites, will generate guidelines for small emitters and will support the ongoing CCS South African projects actually focused only on capture and storage problems.

Laude A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Ricci O.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bureau G.,Geogreen | Royer-Adnot J.,Geogreen | Fabbri A.,Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2011

Biomass energy and carbon capture and storage (BECCS) can lead to a net removal of atmospheric CO2. This paper investigates environmental and economic performances of CCS retrofit applied to two mid-sized refineries producing ethanol from sugar beets. Located in the Region Centre France, each refinery has two major CO2 sources: fermentation and cogeneration units "carbon and energy footprint" (CEF) and " discounted cash flow" (DCF) analyses show that such a project could be a good opportunity for CCS early deployment. CCS retrofit on fermentation only with natural gas fired cogeneration improves CEF of ethanol production and consumption by 60% without increasing much the non renewable energy consumption. CCS retrofit on fermentation and natural gas fired cogeneration is even more appealing by decreasing of 115% CO2 emissions, while increasing non renewable energy consumption by 40%. DCF shows that significant project rates of return can be achieved for such small sources if both a stringent carbon policy and direct subsidies corresponding to 25% of necessary investment are assumed. We also underlined that transport and storage cost dilution can be realistically achieved by clustering emissions from various plants located in the same area. On a single plant basis, increasing ethanol production can also produce strong economies of scale. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Chapuis F.,Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières | Bauer H.,Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières | Grataloup S.,Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières | Leynet A.,Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières | And 6 more authors.
Energy Procedia | Year: 2011

This work is part of the CPER Artenay project that aims at quantifying the environmental benefits and the technico-economic feasibility of storing CO 2 issued from a bio-ethanol distillery into a deep saline aquifer in the Paris Basin, France. This communication focuses on the geological investigations that ultimately lead to defining an optimal location for an injection site in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) project. This paper presents a new approach for the pre-site characterization going from seismic and well data analyses to storage design. First, the general context of the area has been set follow by seismic interpretation. Those investigations leads to a geological surfaces modeling taking into account the basin border location of the project. The next step is the properties modeling made using sequence stratigraphy surfaces and Petrel software. This work will conduct to choose the optimal injection location regarding this geological investigation and the environmental constrains. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Rohmer J.,Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières | Loschetter A.,Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières | Raucoules D.,Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières | de Michele M.,Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières | And 2 more authors.
Engineering Geology | Year: 2015

The performance of Permanent Scatterers PS Interferometry (PSI) analysis is highly limited where the presence of large vegetated cover (agricultural terrains/forests) reduces signal coherence. A possible solution relies on the installation on ground of artificial devices (Corner Reflectors CR) to complement the existing PS network. Yet, the number of such CRs (spatial density typically ~1/km2) can be limited when the deformation pattern affects a large area (tens of km2) especially for CO2 geological storage in open aquifers. In order to support the surveillance of such sites, we address here the question of how to estimate the spatio-temporal distribution of the ground displacements over the whole area using only the sparse CR+PS network. We propose to test the feasibility of the Geostatistics Output Perturbation (GOP) method, enabling to combine: 1. The results of the reservoir model calibrated on the limited number of ground displacements' time series and, 2. The spatial correlation between such calibrated results and the observations. A test case was constructed using the signal measured during CO2 injection (from 2004-2009) in the KB501 well of the In-Salah site, Algeria at only a few tens of spatial measurement points either corresponding to: 1. a "realistic" PS network selected in a highly vegetated region in western France or 2. a series of CR selected through a space-filling criterion. The comparison with the observations over the whole area confirmed that 80% of the temporal observations were fitted by the GOP method over the region defined by the CR network with a density of ~1CR/km2. Comparisons with the calibrated model results and with the direct application of a spatio-temporal kriging confirmed the better performance of GOP as well. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2016

Fluid injection in deep sedimentary porous formations might induce shear reactivation of reservoir faults. In this paper, we focus on 'blind' 1000-m-long normal faults (with limited shear displacement c.a. 1 m), which can hardly be detected using conventional seismic surveys, but might potentially enable leakage pathways. In this study, a blind sub-seismic fault was assumed in the vicinity of a CO2 injection well (c.a. 1 km). The study area is in the eastern part of the Paris Basin and targeting the Lower Triassic Sandstone formation which is deemed adequate for CO2 injection. The arbitrary geometry of the fault (with limited throw c.a. 1 m), was set across the expected migration pathway of the injected CO2. The fault is assumed to extend vertically between the storage and control aquifer. A modeling approach coupling fluid flow and geomechanics is used to assess the pressure impact of the CO2 injection on in-situ fluids and formations. The model extends vertically from the Permian base to the ground surface assuming all layers to be homogeneous except in the storage aquifer where the heterogeneities of the braided channel environment are accounted for. The fault zone is modeled with heterogeneities both in the fault core and damage zones and the control aquifer and is explicitly gridded in the numerical model. In this study the fault core heterogeneities are assumed to be correlated to the Shale Gouge Ratio of the fault.The simulation scenarios aimed for a continuous CO2 injection at a rate of 0.8 Mtpa during 30 years. When assuming the fault does not modify the formation flow and mechanical parameters, very little upward migration of CO2 is computed outside of the storage aquifer. This is not the case when the fault modifies the formation flow and mechanical parameters. In the latter case, the CO2 migrates up to the control aquifer preferably through the fault damage zones rather than through the fault core due to the parameter selection. In both cases, the pressure increase due to CO2 injection in the storage aquifer is small which imply small changes in effective stresses and negligible induced ground deformations. Most of the stress changes are limited to the vicinity of the fault and injection well. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Roussanaly S.,Sintef | Bureau-Cauchois G.,Geogreen | Husebye J.,Sintef
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2013

This paper summarizes key results from the Collaborative COCATE Project for the European Commission (FP7). The costs of transporting a total of 13.1 MtCO2/y from small- to large-scale emitters around Le Havre (France), to Rotterdam (Netherlands) via onshore pipeline or shipping are evaluated. Sources send emissions to five CO2 capture centres, which are then linked via a 40km long collection network to deliver the treated CO2 to the point of export. This network was designed to accommodate peak flow rates and multiple network designs were considered for the various export scenarios evaluated in the study. The economic evaluation established that conditioning CO2 at the cluster level, rather than at the point of export, and transporting it in dense phase was the most cost-effective solution for both export systems. As for exporting the CO2 from Le Havre to Rotterdam, the evaluation highlighted three potential transport solutions: either onshore via one 24in. or one 28in. diameter pipeline or offshore using three ships with effective capacities of 30,000m3 each. The onshore pipeline options proved to be 10% cheaper than the shipping scenario. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the onshore options remained the best choice. © 2013 .

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