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CA, United States

Geographos

CA, United States

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Finkl C.W.,Florida Atlantic University | Finkl C.W.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | Pelinovsky E.,RAS Institute of Applied Physics | Cathcart R.B.,Geographos
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2012

Tsunamis in the eastern Mediterranean and Red Seas, induced by earthquakes and/or volcanic activity, pose potential hazards to shipping and fixed harbor infrastructure within the Suez Canal. Potential vulnerabilities of the Suez Canal to possible tsunami impacts are reviewed by reference to geological, historical, archeoseismological, and anecdotal data. Tsunami catalogues and databases compiled by earlier researchers are perused to estimate potential return periods for tsunami events that could directly affect the Suez Canal and operational infrastructures. Analysis of these various records indicates a centurial return period, or multiples thereof, for long-wave repetition that could generally impact the Nile Delta, whereas numerical models indicate a multidecadal frequency. It is estimated that tsunami waves 2 m high would begin to break about 4 to 10 km down-canal, whereas a 10-m wave break would occur about 0.5 to 3 km into the Canal. © 2012 Coastal Education & Research Foundation.


Badescu V.,Polytechnic University of Bucharest | Badescu V.,Romanian Academy of Sciences | Cathcart R.B.,Geographos | Bolonkin A.A.,C and R | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development | Year: 2013

The macro-engineering project proposal exploits technologies that have the potential to quickly enliven the arid region surrounding Lake Eyre. The plan is focused on biosaline agriculture. The distinctive macro-project components are: Lake Eyre is gradually filled to a higher level by controllingevaporation and by pumping seawater from the nearby ocean using cheap tensioned textile tubes. Most of the necessary energy could be produced by photovoltaics, in a very attractive application without electricity storage requirements. Eventually, Lake Eyre is to be lidded with a floating impermeable plastic cap or with buoyant hollow plastic balls that reduce evaporation. Filled with seawater, Lake Eyre can be used as a reservoir for irrigation in biosaline agriculture. Elementary mathematical models for the proposed tasks and rough macro-economical estimations are presented. Based on overall results, we concluded that the macro-project is feasible with existing technologies and could become profitable in a few decades. But beyond payingoff the capital investment, the greatest implementation benefit is the prospect of creating conditions for human settlement in the low-fertility soils of the Lake Eyre basin. Additional research directions are briefly presented. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Cathcart R.B.,Geographos | Finkl C.W.,Florida Atlantic University | Badescu V.,Polytechnic University of Bucharest
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011

Australia is one of the driest continents on earth with most interior lands classified as steppe or desert. With an expanding coastal population pushing farther inland, the need for freshwater increases for urban use, agriculture, and industry and because there is little freshwater at the surface and most of the groundwater is too saline and generally unsuitable for multiple uses, new sources of freshwater must be sought to sustain future development of Western Australia's interior. To mitigate this ongoing macroproblem, it is proposed to establish a new Southern Ocean maritime sea-lane between Antarctica and Western Australia with the first large-scale deployment of very capacious floating liquid freshwater containers (Stauber bags), barges hauled and shuttled regularly by carousel-type supertugboats to convey a directly acquired, essentially cost-free, bulk-harvested potable subglacial Antarctic meltwater possibly siphoned from beneath the floating Amery Ice Shelf and transported to Western Australia. Access of the floating liquid freshwater containers to Perth, the capital city, would be up-slope the offshore Perth Canyon to the continental shelf. Stored containers could lay off in the lee of Rottnest Island at the Perth Terminal. From there, freshwater could be transported to wherever needed in coastal rural and urban Western Australia. On land, Pecero self-rolling bags could be used to distribute all imported freshwater farther inland and serve also as stationary (parked) reservoirs. Stock watering, farm irrigation, and drinking water as well as mineral mine, petroleum refinery, and sewage treatment processing are likely additional income-producing consumptive users. Both bulk long-distance conveyance and long-term storage on land by such means will naturally reduce the present-day stress on Western Australia's domestic water supplies, storage, and delivery systems that are limited by regional climates with long-term seasonal dryness. Freshwater imported would absolutely reduce freshwater stress on Western Australia's excessivelyexploited rivers and excessively mined aquifers. © 2011 Coastal Education & Research Foundation.


Rugescu R.D.,Polytechnic University of Bucharest | Chatcart R.B.,GEOGRAPHOS | Rugescu D.R.,Solano Comunity College
Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2011 | Year: 2011

A novel solution is proposed for the enhancement of environmental condition in the region of Lac Assal from the Djibouti Republic, based on exploitation of geothermal water resources, largely present in the territory. The working principle and the expected efficiency of the gravity draught thermal tower are developed that show a very good compliance with the geothermal resource around Lac Assal.


Badescu V.,Polytechnic University of Bucharest | Cathcart R.B.,Geographos
International Journal of Environment and Waste Management | Year: 2011

A comprehensive control strategy to partially recreate the Aral Sea involves several hydrological factors: • overland pipeline conveyance of Caspian Sea water deposited into the Aral Sea Basin • overland pipeline conveyance of Aral Sea brine deposited into the Caspian Sea • compensating overland pipeline importation of Black Sea water to the Caspian Sea. Effects of hydrological management of the Syr Darya and the Aral Sea's regulated Western Basin as well as a technical/economic model are offered. Copyright © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Badescu V.,Polytechnic University of Bucharest | Cathcart R.B.,Geographos
International Journal of Environment and Waste Management | Year: 2011

Three operational scenarios produce water levels stabilised at 28.9, 27.2 and 25.7 m. A macro-engineering solution is considered. Increased runoff from Syr Darya and other freshwater sources raises the Aral Sea level by 1.4-3.5 m. Depending on the scenario, the Aral Sea returns to its 2005 elevation. Caspian Sea water importation, at flow rates of 14 km 3/year leads to Aral Sea stabilisation at ̃32 m. Some considerations of the macro-project's ecological, cultural and social consequences are examined. Copyright © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Badescu V.,Polytechnic University of Bucharest | Isvoranu D.,Polytechnic University of Bucharest | Cathcart R.B.,Geographos
Water Resources Management | Year: 2010

This paper offers a technical and geopolitical reappraisal of a macro-engineering proposal to plumb Earth's freshwater, siphoning some of it from a region of surplus (Amazon River Basin) to a region of shortage (arid northern Africa) via his positively buoyant (subsurface floating) seabed-anchored Transatlantic Freshwater Aqueduct. Two different routes for the pipeline, of length 4,317 and 3,745 km, respectively, have been considered. Pipe diameters larger than 60 m are necessary for "reasonable" low pumping power (i.e., less than 20 GW). Using a bundle of smaller size pipes instead of a larger single pipe might overcome technical difficulties but the advantage of simplifying the construction technology might be exceeded by the disadvantage of consuming more power in operation. To keep the number of pumping stations reasonably small (i.e. fewer than 20) a single pipe of diameter higher than 30 m (or bundles of smaller diameter pipes) is required. The Atlantic Ocean currents may be used to provide the necessary power for pumps. The available power possibly provided by the North Brazil Current ranges between 2 and 9 GW. The North Equatorial Current may provide less than 0.3 GW power while the North Equatorial Counter Current provides the largest power availability, ranging between 2 and about 100 GW. A rough cost estimate of the project is about 20,600 GUSD and 18,400 GUSD, respectively, for two pipeline routes. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.


Finkl C.W.,Florida Atlantic University | Cathcart R.B.,Geographos
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011

Australia's so-called "Dead Heart," its hot arid interior landscape, can be brought into irrigated agricultural production with the importation of extracontinental freshwater supplies originating in Papua New Guinea. Despite Queensland's La Niña-caused historic and costly 2010 to 2011 river flooding induced, in great part by tropical cyclone Yasi, its westernmost torrid region is classed as arid, currently almost without any irrigation agriculture present. Freshwater importation from Papua New Guinea's Fly River via an undersea pipeline mostly skirting the Torres Strait could increase the value of Queensland's little-used dryland Outback and, perhaps, establish new overseas markets in Asia for exported agricultural products. An induced perennial Diamantina River could replenish groundwater recharge regions (Great Artesian Basin) and convert Lake Eyre to a permanent lake of slightly brackish water. Irrigated eucalyptus tree plantations might serve, in part, to counter some Earthly global warming. The Torres Strait Islanders will benefit economically as well as other social groups on the mainland of Papua New Guinea. Here we examine closely some of the technical aspects of a Papua New Guinea-Queensland (PNG-QLD) Undersea Freshwater Pipeline Macroproject (UFPM) installation. We offer a choice of two routings for the PNG-QLD UFPM (Case A) while at the same time making clear our informed preference. © 2011, the Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF).

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