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Viczian I.,Geographical Research Institute HAS | Zatyko C.,Archaeological Institute HAS
Hungarian Geographical Bulletin

This geomorphological and environmental history case study aims at reconstructing the environmental conditions and the different ways of land use in the surroundings of Berzence in the Drava valley. The area's geomorphological evolution is examined with regards to the natural processes and the human impact that formed the landscape. The results indicate a tendency in the surface waters and underground waters for drying, mainly due to water regulation and canalization works. Findings from archaeological fi eld walks, certified documents, and old maps are integrated in the reconstruction. Special att ention is given to medieval fi shing areas, iron processing sites and sett lement structures. Source

Three alumina factories have operated in Hungary, at Mosonmagyaró vár (1934-2002), Ajka (since 1942) and Almásfüzito (1950-1997) based largely on Hungarian bauxite. In these factories bauxite was processed by the Bayer procedure. The strongly alkaline waste arising during the process was transported by hydraulic way to the depositories. The red sludge was stored in reservoirs surrounded by circular dyke at Ajka, Mosonmagyaróvár and Almásfüzito while in Neszmély it was deposited behind a dam in a valley. On October 4, 2010 in the north-western corner of reservoir 10th the dyke ruptured and ca 700 thousand cubic meters of watered (alkaline) red sludge flooded the low-lying parts of the settlements Kolontár, Devecser and Somlóvá sárhely. The spill accident has involved casualties (ten people died and more than 120 were injured) and caused considerable material damage. Contamination soon reached the nearby Marcal river and proceeded to the Danube. The aim of present work is to describe the geomorphologic situation in the environment of the red sludge reservoires at Ajka and to make a proposal for the regulation of the hydrographical system over the surrounding territories. Source

Nagy I.,Koti Kovizig Middle Tisza District Environment and Water Directorate | Ligetvari F.,Szent Istvan University | Schweitzer F.,Geographical Research Institute HAS
Hungarian Geographical Bulletin

Hungary is among the countries in Europe most severely endangered by floods. Fourteen rivers entering Hungary from the mountainous area of the Carpathian Basin have high channel slope gradients which serve as a source of considerable flood hazard. The disastrous floods during the last decades in Hungary have been caused mainly by Tisza River and their tributaries situated on the eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain (Alföld). These cases make necessary a thorough analysis of the extreme flood events to be carried out and the drawing of conclusions with recommendations to be made as for the immediate legal interventions. The present article outlines a river regulation program on the basis of a new concept. The purpose of this program beyond the increase of flood security is to improve the quality of life of the population concerned, extend water supply capacities, preserve natural resources and to provide flood risk management. Source

Schweitzer F.,Geographical Research Institute HAS | Balogh J.,Geographical Research Institute HAS | Toth L.,Geographical Research Institute HAS | Monus P.,Geodetic and Geophysical Research Institute of HAS
Hungarian Geographical Bulletin

Investigations into interrelationships between geomorphology, neotectonics and seismicity in the Danube Plain and in the northern part of the Danube-Tisza Interfluve bear importance due to the socio-economic significance of these landscapes. Studies on geomorphology and neotectonics are aimed at getting knowledge about the landform evolution of the actual surface, seismic events and at collecting evidence of the latter. The results have been represented in thematic maps, where landscape boundaries based on genetic notions coincided with neotectonic fault lines in several places. In order to make geomorphological and tectonic models correct the geological sediments of the high bluff of the Danube were analyzed palaeogeomorphologically, lithostratigraphically, chronologically and sedimentologically. The most important fault lines and areas of subsidence were singled out according to geomorphological and seismological features. Source

Schweitzer F.,Geographical Research Institute HAS | Kis E.,Geographical Research Institute HAS | Kovacs A.,Geographical Research Institute HAS
Hungarian Geographical Bulletin

There are only few loess exposures in Hungary where red clays and very ancient "pink" loesses can be studied not only in deep boreholes but where they are found in uplift ed position subsurface. Szulimán section studied in detail belongs to them. The same method was applied for the investigations of similar sequences in elevated position at Héví zgyörk. In this way Quaternary deposits in different regions of the country can be parallelized. The investigations were aimed at disclosing changes in paleogeographic conditions during Pleistocene in the environs of the studied exposures with the involvement of new analytical methods of Quaternary sedimentology. An important requirement was that a rapid and exact information be obtained directly from the stratigraphic diagrams and the summary tables containing the parameter values for the individual layers. Our primary aim was to present diagrams and tables with information for the reader about the layers to be found at different depths. Source

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