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Antibes, France

Pinzuti P.,CNRS Nantes Laboratory of Planetology and Geodynamics | Humler E.,CNRS Nantes Laboratory of Planetology and Geodynamics | Manighetti I.,Geoazur | Gaudemer Y.,CNRS Paris Institute of Global Physics
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2013

The temporal evolution of the mantle melting processes in the Asal Rift is evaluated from the chemical composition of 56 new lava flows sampled along 10 km of the rift axis and 9 km off-axis (i.e., erupted within the last 620 kyr). Petrological and primary geochemical results show that most of the samples of the inner floor of the Asal Rift are affected by plagioclase accumulation. Trace element ratios and major element compositions corrected for mineral accumulation and crystallization show a symmetric pattern relative to the rift axis and preserved a clear signal of mantle melting depth variations. While FeO, Fe8.0, Zr/Y, and (Dy/Yb)N decrease from the rift shoulders to the rift axis, SiO2, Na/Ti, Lu/Hf increase and Na 2O and Na8.0 are constant across the rift. These variations are qualitatively consistent with shallow melting beneath the rift axis and deeper melting for off-axis lava flows. Na8.0 and Fe 8.0 contents show that beneath the rift axis, melting paths are shallow, from 81 ± 4 to 43 ± 5 km. These melting paths are consistent with adiabatic melting in normal-temperature fertile asthenosphere, beneath an extensively thinned mantle lithosphere. On the contrary, melting on the rift shoulders (from 107 ± 7 to 67 ± 8 km) occurred beneath thicker lithosphere, requiring a mantle solidus temperature 100 ± 40°C hotter. In this geodynamic environment, the calculated rate of lithospheric thinning appears to be 4.0 ± 2.0 cm yr-1, a value close to the mean spreading rate (2.9 ± 0.2 cm yr-1) over the last 620 kyr. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Moczo P.,Comenius University | Moczo P.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Kristek J.,Comenius University | Kristek J.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2011

We analyse 13 3-D numerical time-domain explicit schemes for modelling seismic wave propagation and earthquake motion for their behaviour with a varying P-wave to S-wave speed ratio (VP/VS). The second-order schemes include three finite-difference, three finite-element and one discontinuous-Galerkin schemes. The fourth-order schemes include three finite-difference and two spectral-element schemes. All schemes are second-order in time. We assume a uniform cubic grid/mesh and present all schemes in a unified form. We assume plane S-wave propagation in an unbounded homogeneous isotropic elastic medium. We define relative local errors of the schemes in amplitude and the vector difference in one time step and normalize them for a unit time. We also define the equivalent spatial sampling ratio as a ratio at which the maximum relative error is equal to the reference maximum error. We present results of the extensive numerical analysis. We theoretically (i) show how a numerical scheme sees the P and S waves if the VP/VS ratio increases, (ii) show the structure of the errors in amplitude and the vector difference and (iii) compare the schemes in terms of the truncation errors of the discrete approximations to the second mixed and non-mixed spatial derivatives. We find that four of the tested schemes have errors in amplitude almost independent on the VP/VS ratio. The homogeneity of the approximations to the second mixed and non-mixed spatial derivatives in terms of the coefficients of the leading terms of their truncation errors as well as the absolute values of the coefficients are key factors for the behaviour of the schemes with increasing VP/VS ratio. The dependence of the errors in the vector difference on the VP/VS ratio should be accounted for by a proper (sufficiently dense) spatial sampling. © 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2011 RAS. Source

Camera L.,Geoazur | Mascle J.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Wardell N.,National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics - OGS | Accettella D.,National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics - OGS
Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata | Year: 2014

Funded by the EEC Sixth Framework Program, the SEAHELLARC project was aimed to evaluate, and better understand the causes, of the various natural geohazards (chiefly earthquakes and tsunamis), which frequently affect the western Peloponnese area and particularly its coastal domain; this region is one of the most seismically active of Greece and therefore of the Mediterranean Sea. Based on a set of new geophysical data, such as detailed swath bathymetry and high-resolution sub-bottom Chirp, we have distinguished and studied four contrasted domains along this area of the Peloponnese active continental margin underlined by intense crustal seismicity and marked by very contrasted and often sharp continental slopes; from east to west these are: (1) an area including the continental shelf and the upper slope; there sedimentary overload and destabilizations, syn-sedimentary faults, mass transport deposits and active sedimentary by-pass mechanisms are the main risk factors. (2) The middle to lower continental slopes, is mainly expressed by two, N-S trending, faultrelated, depressions, where active deformations, well recorded by actual tilting of the sedimentary blanket, occur. (3) West of this deep structural depressions exists a poorly sedimented ridge area (from which merges the small Strophades Islands) also showing N-S and E-W trending lineaments resulting in a dense network of fractures and scarps and leading too a particularly complex sub-marine morphology; this area, together with the westernmost deep domain (4), which bounds the continental margin, clearly records the effects of significant active tectonic. Our studies of the shallow and recent sedimentary cover of the continental margin off western Peloponnese, confirm that this active margin segment is an area where geohazards can be expected. In addition to fault ruptures, generated at depth by the specific tectonic framework, sedimentary collapses, particularly along the shelf break nearby Cape Katakolo, may trigger significant local tsunamis, which may in turn induce strong damages all along the nearby coasts up to the town of Pylos. © 2014 - OGS. Source

Konstantinou K.I.,National Central University | Lee S.-J.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Font Y.,Geoazur | Kao H.,Geological Survey of Canada
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors | Year: 2011

The southern Ryukyus represents an area where different tectonic stress regimes result in high seismicity and increased seismic hazard for nearby areas such as Taiwan. On 18 December 2001 at 04:03 (GMT) a strong earthquake (Mw 6.8) occurred in the forearc area of the southern Ryukyu subduction zone. Revised moment tensor solutions published by GCMT and BATS groups show a normal faulting mechanism with some strike-slip component and also point to a shallow focal depth (∼12. km). We use arrival times picked at both Taiwanese and Japanese stations along with a 3D geo-realistic a priori velocity model in order to obtain accurate absolute locations for the mainshock and 153 of its aftershocks. Locations are derived by using the Maximum intersection (MAXI) algorithm which has been used in many previous seismicity studies in the southern Ryukyus. These improved locations indicate that the mainshock was caused by the failure of a NE-SW oriented fault that extends from the edge of the Nanao forearc sedimentary basin to the Ryukyu arc basement. Far-field P and SH waveforms of the mainshock recorded at stations surrounding the source and at distances 30-100°, were inverted for the purpose of investigating its rupture process. A non-negative least-squares inversion technique utilizing multiple time windows was used to derive the spatio-temporal slip distribution. The preferred slip distribution model shows that there is one large area of high slip (∼0.9. m) at 5-15. km depth that essentially represents the crystalline rocks of the Ryukyu arc basement. Another smaller area with lower slip (∼0.4. m) extends at 10-15. km depth beneath the Nanao basin. Most aftershocks are located in areas of low slip (<0.4. m) filling the regions of slip deficit. It is likely that the 18 December 2001 earthquake was caused by a stress field interaction generated by the oblique subduction of the Gagua ridge and the gravitational forces acting at its landward flank. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Papoulia J.,Hellenic Center for Marine Research | Makris J.,GeoPro | Mascle J.,Geoazur | Slejko D.,National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics - OGS | Yalciner A.,Ankara University
Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata | Year: 2014

The SEAHELLARC project, supported by the European Commission, aimed at evaluating and computing seismic hazard and risk, as well as modelling tsunamis for the town of Pylos, in the western Peloponnese and neighboring region. This paper describes the main scopes and results of the project. © 2014 - OGS. Source

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