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Kastner S.,University of Bremen | Enters D.,University of Bremen | Enters D.,University of Savoy | Ohlendorf C.,University of Bremen | And 8 more authors.
Global and Planetary Change | Year: 2010

Lago del Desierto (49°02′S, 72°51′W) is situated in the climatically sensitive area of Southern Patagonia close to the Hielo Patagonico Sur (HPS or South Patagonian Ice Field, Argentina). Next to marine records and Antarctic ice cores, this continental area is important to reveal hemispheric and global climate trends. As instrumental climate records from this region are generally short and scarce, environmental archives are the only source of long-term records of climate variations. In this study, the potential of laminated proglacial sediments from Lago del Desierto as a palaeoclimate archive is evaluated. Two parallel gravity cores (max. length 283cm) were analysed using a multi-proxy approach. Radiometric dating (14C, 210Pb and 137Cs) and tephrochronology document that the sediment cover the last 2000years. Especially in the middle part of the record, numerous turbidites make climate variations difficult to decipher. However, after exclusion of event layers changes in sedimentological, mineralogical, and geochemical parameters reveal a long-term trend of runoff variations and sediment accessibility controlled by changes in temperature and precipitation. An abrupt transition in sediment composition occurred around AD 850 and is interpreted as a change in sediment availability related to the initial exposure of formerly glaciated areas in the catchment. This striking change mirrors the onset of warmer climate conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Moreover, the Little Ice Age cooling and the subsequent 20th century warming can be traced in the sediment record corresponding to an overall trend observed for southern South America. The proglacial lacustrine sediment record of Lago del Desierto thus constitutes a link between glacier studies of the HPS and other terrestrial climate archives in a region were long, and continuous climate records are still rare. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Schmahl W.,Geo Bio Center | Griesshaber E.,Geo Bio Center | Kelm K.,German Aerospace Center | Goetz A.,Geo Bio Center | And 5 more authors.
Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie | Year: 2012

Biologic structural materials for skeletons or teeth show a hierarchical architecture, where organic macromolecules and mineral substance form a hybrid composite material with its components inter-weaved on many length scales. On the nanostructure level brachiopods form hybrid composite mesocrystals of calcite with occluded organic molecules. On the microstructure level several types of materials are produced, on which the electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) technique gives insight in texture and architecture. We describe the calcite single-crystal fiber composite architecture of the secondary layer involving organic matrix membranes, the competitive- growth texture of the columnar layer and the nanostructuring of the primary layer. In the overall skeleton the organic biopolymers provide flexibility and tensile strength while the mineral provides a high elastic modulus, compressive strength, hardness and resistance to abrasion. The hierarchical composite architecture, from the nanostructure to the macroscopic level provides fracture toughness. The morphogenesis of the biomaterial as a whole and of the mineral crystals is guided by the organic matrix and most probably involves amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precursors. In this paper we review the hierarchical architecture of rhynchonelliform brachiopod shells, which is very distinct from mollusk nacre. Source

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