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Sant Cugat del Vallès, Spain

Desire S.,Animal and Veterinary science Group | Turner S.P.,Animal and Veterinary science Group | D'Eath R.B.,Animal and Veterinary science Group | Doeschl-Wilson A.B.,Roslin Institute | And 2 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2016

Aggression at regrouping is a common issue in pig farming. Skin lesions are genetically and phenotypically correlated with aggression and have been shown to have a significant heritable component. This study predicts the magnitude of reduction in complex aggressive behavioural traits when using lesion numbers on different body regions at two different time points as selection criteria, to identify the optimum skin lesion trait for selection purposes. In total, 1146 pigs were mixed into new social groups, and skin lesions were counted 24 h (SL24h) and 3 weeks (SL3wk) post-mixing, on the anterior, centre and posterior regions of the body. An animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters for skin lesion traits and 14 aggressive behavioural traits. Estimated breeding values (EBVs) and phenotypic values were scaled and standardised to allow direct comparison across multiple traits. Individuals with SL24h and SL3wk EBVs in the least aggressive 10% of the population were compared with the population mean to predict the expected genetic and phenotypic response in aggressive behaviour to selection. At mixing, selection for low anterior lesions was predicted to affect substantially more behavioural traits of aggressiveness than lesions obtained on other body parts, with EBVs between −0.21 and −1.17 SD below the population mean. Individuals with low central SL24h EBVs also had low EBVs for aggressive traits (−0.33 to −0.55). Individuals with high SL3wk EBVs had low EBVs for aggression at mixing (between −0.24 and −0.53 SD below the population mean), although this was predicted to affect fewer traits than selection against SL24h. These results suggest that selection against anterior SL24h would result in the greatest genetic and phenotypic reduction in aggressive behaviour recorded at mixing. Selection for increased SL3wk was predicted to reduce aggression at mixing; however, current understanding about aggressive behaviour under stable social conditions is insufficient to recommend using this trait for selection purposes. © The Animal Consortium 2016


Novel mutations in cytochrome P450C17 (CYP17) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5) affecting 16-androstene steroid synthesis are disclosed. The novel mutations result in alterations in production of critical intermediaries in the synthesis of 16-androstene steroids. Altering the activity of these enzymes may be useful in enhancing reducing androstenone synthesis and reducing boar taint. The identification of these novel mutations also allows for the development of transgenic pigs bearing mutations in these enzymes or for genetic screening to identify pigs on the basis of their CYP17 and/or CYB5 genotype. Pigs having these mutations may be selected and bred to produce pigs that have a lower incidence of boar taint.


Novel mutations in cytochrome P450C17 (CYP17) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5) affecting 16-androstene steroid synthesis are disclosed. The novel mutations result in alterations in production of critical intermediaries in the synthesis of 16-androstene steroids. Altering the activity of these enzymes may be useful in enhancing reducing androstenone synthesis and reducing boar taint. The identification of these novel mutations also allows for the development of transgenic pigs bearing mutations in these enzymes or for genetic screening to identify pigs on the basis of their CYP17 and/or CYB5 genotype. Pigs having these mutations may be selected and bred to produce pigs that have a lower incidence of boar taint.


Whitworth K.M.,University of Missouri | Lee K.,University of Missouri | Lee K.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Benne J.A.,University of Missouri | And 13 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2014

Targeted modification of the pig genome can be challenging. Recent applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system hold promise for improving the efficacy of genome editing. When a designed CRISPR/Cas9 system targeting CD163 or CD1D was introduced into somatic cells, it was highly efficient in inducing mutations. When these mutated cells were used with somatic cell nuclear transfer, offspring with these modifications were created. When the CRISPR/Cas9 system was delivered into in vitro produced presumptive porcine zygotes, the system was effective in creating mutations in eGFP, CD163, and CD1D (100% targeting efficiency in blastocyst stage embryos); however, it also presented some embryo toxicity. We could also induce deletions in CD163 or CD1D by introducing two types of CRISPRs with Cas9. The system could also disrupt two genes, CD163 and eGFP, simultaneously when two CRISPRs targeting two genes with Cas9 were delivered into zygotes. Direct injection of CRISPR/Cas9 targeting CD163 or CD1D into zygotes resulted in piglets that have mutations on both alleles with only one CD1D pig having a mosaic genotype. We show here that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be used by two methods. The system can be used to modify somatic cells followed by somatic cell nuclear transfer. System components can also be used in in vitro produced zygotes to generate pigs with specific genetic modifications. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

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