Shen X.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention |
Yuan Z.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention |
Mei J.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention |
Zhang Z.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention |
And 18 more authors.
Drug Safety | Year: 2014
Introduction: The most reliable liver safety signal in a clinical trial is considered to be 'Hy's Law cases' defined as subjects experiencing hepatocellular injury and serum bilirubin elevations with no more likely cause than study drug. However, there is little published data to support the current biochemical criteria for Hy's Law cases or their use to estimate postmarketing risk of severe liver injury. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to identify and characterize Hy's Law cases in patients treated for tuberculosis (TB). A secondary objective was to identify patient risk factors for drug-induced liver injuries. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013.
Rudek M.A.,Johns Hopkins University |
Connolly R.M.,Johns Hopkins University |
Hoskins J.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Hoskins J.M.,Gentris Corporation |
And 11 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2013
The pro-drug capecitabine is approved for treatment of anthracycline- and paclitaxel-resistant metastatic breast cancer. However, toxicity and large interpatient pharmacokinetic variability occur despite body surface area (BSA)-dosing. We hypothesized that a fixed-dose schedule would simplify dosing and provide an effective and safe alternative to BSA-based dosing. We conducted an open label, single-arm, two-stage study of oral capecitabine with fixed starting dose (3,000 mg total daily dose in two divided doses × 14 days q21 days) in patients with metastatic breast cancer. We correlated pharmacodynamic endpoints [e.g., efficacy (response) per RECIST and toxicity], adherence and pharmacokinetics/pharmacogenetics. Sample size of 45 patients was required to detect a 25 % response rate from null response rate of 10 % using a Simon two-stage design. Twenty-six patients were enrolled in the first-stage and 21 were evaluable after a median of four cycles of capecitabine. Two thirds of patients received either the same dose or a dose 500 mg lower than what would have been administered with a commonly used 2,000 mg/m2 BSA-dosing schedule. Eight patients had stable disease but progressed after a median of seven cycles. Despite a clinical benefit rate of 19 %, no RECIST responses were observed following the first stage and the study was closed. Dose-reductions were required for grade 2 hand-foot syndrome (28 %) and vomiting (5 %). Adherence was similar when using both patient-reported and Medication Event Monitoring System methods. High interpatient variability was observed for capecitabine and metabolite pharmacokinetics, but was not attributed to observed pharmacogenetic or BSA differences. Single agent activity of capecitabine was modest in our patients with estrogen receptor-positive or -negative metastatic breast cancer and comparable to recent studies. BSA was not the main source of pharmacokinetic variability. Fixed-dose capecitabine is feasible, and simplifies dosing. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Patel M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Patel M.,Gentris Corporation |
Gomez N.C.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
McFadden A.W.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
And 8 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Research | Year: 2014
Recent evidence implicates the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway in development of Ewing sarcoma, a highly malignant bone and soft-tissue tumor that primarily affects children and young adults. Despite promising results from preclinical studies of therapies that target this pathway, early-phase clinical trials have shown that a significant fraction of patients do not benefit, suggesting that cellular factors determine tumor sensitivity. Using FAIRE-seq, a chromosomal deletion of the PTEN locus in a Ewing sarcoma cell line was identified. In primary tumors, PTEN deficiency was observed in a large subset of cases, although not mediated by large chromosomal deletions. PTEN loss resulted in hyperactivation of the AKT signaling pathway. PTEN rescue led to decreased proliferation, inhibition of colony formation, and increased apoptosis. Strikingly, PTEN loss decreased sensitivity to IGF1R inhibitors but increased responsiveness to temsirolimus, a potent mTOR inhibitor, as marked by induction of autophagy. These results suggest that PTEN is lost in a significant fraction of primary tumors, and this deficiency may have therapeutic consequences by concurrently attenuating responsiveness to IGF1R inhibition while increasing activity of mTOR inhibitors. The identification of PTEN status in the tumors of patients with recurrent disease could help guide the selection of therapies. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Gentris Corporation | Date: 2006-08-29
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