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Mogensen M.,Gentofte Hospital | Jemec G.B.E.,Copenhagen University
Cancer Management and Research | Year: 2010

Introduction: In 2009, the WHO listed ultraviolet (UV) radiation as a group 1 arcinogen. In spite of this, each year, millions of people tan indoor in Western countries. The aim of this review is to summarize evidence of tanning bed carcinogenesis and to present guidelines for use of tanning beds and patient safety advice. Methods: A narrative review of the literature was conducted based on both PubMed and Medline searches and on literature review of the retrieved papers. Results: Use of indoor tanning beds represents a significant and avoidable risk factor for the development of both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Frequent tanners are more often adolescent females. Tanning beds have additional potential adverse effects such as burns, solar skin damage, infection, and possibly also addictive behavior. Discussion: The effort in preventing UV light-induced carcinogenesis should currently be aimed at developing new strategies for public health information. Tanning beds are one preventable source of UV radiation. In the majority of people solar UV radiation continues to be the major factor and therefore anti-tanning campaigns must always include sunbathers. © 2010 Mogensen and Jemec, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press. Source

Abrahamsen B.,Gentofte Hospital | Harvey N.C.,University of Southampton
Nature Reviews Rheumatology | Year: 2013

Vitamin D is a dietary vitamin that can also be synthesized in adequate amounts from cholesterol in most mammals exposed to sunlight. Vitamin D has classical roles in calcium and phosphate metabolism, and thus the skeleton; however, this molecule also has nonclassical effects that might influence the function of the immune, cardiovascular and endocrine systems. Vitamin D deficiency, due to insufficient sunlight exposure, dietary uptake and/or abnormalities in its metabolism, has been associated with rheumatic diseases, and both the classical and nonclassical effects of vitamin D might be of relevance to patients with rheumatic disease. However, conclusive data from intervention trials demonstrating the relationship between vitamin D levels and pathogenetic processes separate from classical effects of this molecule are lacking. Furthermore, the majority of studies linking vitamin D to health outcomes, harmful or beneficial, are observational in nature, linking clinical events to vitamin D exposure or serum levels of vitamin D metabolites. Evidence from high quality, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials should be obtained before vitamin D supplementation is recommended in the treatment of the many rheumatic conditions in which deficiency of this compound has been implicated. Herein, we review the evidence for vitamin D supplementation in the management of patients with rheumatic diseases. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Tonnesen P.,Gentofte Hospital
European Respiratory Review | Year: 2013

The mainstay in smoking cessation is counselling in combination with varenicline, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or bupropion SR. Varenicline and combination of two NRTs is equally effective, while varenicline alone is more effective than either NRT or bupropion SR. NRT is extremely safe but cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with varenicline have been reported. These treatments have also been shown to be effective in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A model study is the Lung Health Study from the USA. Findings from this study of 5,587 patients with mild COPD showed that repeated smoking cessation for a period of 5 yrs resulted in a quit rate of 37%. After 14.5 yrs the quitters had a higher lung function and a higher survival rate. A study with a new nicotine formulation, a mouth spray, showed high relative efficacy. As 5-10% of quitters use long-term NRT, we report the results of a study where varenicline compared with placebo increased the quit rate in long-term users of NRT. Smoking cessation is the most effective intervention in stopping the progression of COPD, as well as increasing survival and reducing morbidity. This is why smoking cessation should be the top priority in the treatment of COPD. © ERS 2013. Source

Rumessen J.J.,Gentofte Hospital
Ultrastructural Pathology | Year: 2010

Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are key regulatory cells in the gut. In the colon of patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC), myenteric ICC had myoid ultrastructural features and were in close contact with nerve terminals. In all patients as opposed to controls, some ICC profiles showed degenerative changes, such as lipid droplets and irregular vacuoles. Nerve terminals often appeared swollen and empty. Glial cells, muscle cells, and fibroblast-like cells (FLC) showed no alterations. FLC enclosed macrophages (MLC), which were in close contact with naked axon terminals. The organization and cytological changes may be of pathophysiological significance in patients with UC. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Preiss D.,University of Glasgow | Kristensen S.L.,Gentofte Hospital
Canadian Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2015

In the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines published in 2001, estimation of cardiovascular risk was recommended based on the Framingham score for 10-year risk of myocardial infarction and the Canadian Cardiovascular Society currently recommends the Framingham total cardiovascular risk score. During development of joint guidelines released in 2013 by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA), the decision was taken to develop a new risk score. This resulted in the ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator. This risk calculator, based on major National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded cohort studies, is designed to predict 10-year risk of 'hard' atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events, namely, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, nonfatal, or fatal stroke. Considerable strengths are its inclusion of stroke as anend point and race as a characteristic, which allows better risk prediction especially in African-American individuals, plus provision of lifetime ASCVD risk estimates for adults aged 20-59 years. Notable omissions from the risk factors include chronic kidney disease and any measure of social deprivation. An early criticism of the Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator has been its alleged overestimation of ASCVD risk which, if confirmed in the general population, is likely to result in statin therapy being prescribed to many individuals at lower risk than the intended 7.5% 10-year ASCVD risk threshold for treatment in the joint ACC/AHA cholesterol guidelines. In this review we discuss the development of the new risk calculator, its strengths and weaknesses, and potential implications for its routine use. © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Source

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