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Cheng Y.-S.,Genozyme Biotechnology Inc. | Cheng Y.-S.,AsiaPac Biotechnology Co. | Chen C.-C.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology | Huang C.-H.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2014

Background: Thermophilic xylanases are valuable in many industrial applications. Results: The structures of a xylanase XynCDBFV and its complex with xylooligosaccharides were determined, and its N-terminal region (NTR) contributes to thermostability. Conclusion: NTR may stabilize the overall protein folding of XynCDBFV. Significance: The structural and functional investigation of unprecedented NTR of XynCDBFV provides a new insight into the molecular basis of thermophilic xylanases. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Jiang T.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology | Chan H.-C.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology | Huang C.-H.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology | Ko T.-P.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2013

β-Glucanases have been utilized widely in industry to treat various carbohydrate-containing materials. Recently, the Podospora anserina β-glucanase 131A (PaGluc131A) was identified and classified to a new glycoside hydrolases GH131 family. It shows exo-β-1,3/exo-β-1,6 and endo-β-1,4 glucanase activities with a broad substrate specificity for laminarin, curdlan, pachyman, lichenan, pustulan, and cellulosic derivatives. Here we report the crystal structures of the PaGluc131A catalytic domain with or without ligand (cellotriose) at 1.8. Å resolution. The cellotriose was clearly observed to occupy the +1 to +3 subsites in substrate binding cleft. The broadened substrate binding groove may explain the diverse substrate specificity. Based on our crystal structures, the GH131 family enzyme is likely to carry out the hydrolysis through an inverting catalytic mechanism, in which E99 and E139 are supposed to serve as the general base and general acid. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Cheng Y.-S.,National Taiwan University | Ko T.-P.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Huang J.-W.,Genozyme Biotechnology Inc. | Wu T.-H.,National Taiwan University | And 10 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Cellulase 12A from Thermotoga maritima (TmCel12A) is a hyperthermostable ß-1,4-endoglucanase. We recently determined the crystal structures of TmCel12A and its complexes with oligosaccharides. Here, by using sitedirected mutagenesis, the role played by Arg60 and Tyr61 in a unique surface loop of TmCel12A was investigated. The results are consistent with the previously observed hydrogen bonding and stacking interactions between these two residues and the substrate. Interestingly, the mutant Y61G had the highest activity when compared with the wild-type enzyme and the other mutants. It also shows a wider range of working temperatures than does the wild type, along with retention of the hyperthermostability. The kcat and Km values of Y61G are both higher than those of the wild type. In conjunction with the crystal structure of Y61G-substrate complex, the kinetic data suggest that the higher endoglucanase activity is probably due to facile dissociation of the cleaved sugar moiety at the reducing end. Additional crystallographic analyses indicate that the insertion and deletion mutations at the Tyr61 site did not affect the overall protein structure, but local perturbations might diminish the substrate-binding strength. It is likely that the catalytic efficiency of TmCel12A is a subtle balance between substrate binding and product release. The activity enhancement by the single mutation of Y61G provides a good example of engineered enzyme for industrial application. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Cheng Y.-S.,Genozyme Biotechnology Inc. | Cheng Y.-S.,AsiaPac Biotechnology Co. | Chen C.-C.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology | Huang J.-W.,Genozyme Biotechnology Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

XynCDBFV from Neocallimastix patriciarum is among the most effective xylanases and holds great potentials in a wide variety of industrial applications. In the present study, several active site residues were modified referring to the instrumental information of the complex structure of XynCDBFV and xylooligosaccharides. Among the 12 single active site mutants, W125F and F163W show increased activity comparing to the wild-type protein. The double mutant W125F/F163W was then generated which displayed nearly 20 % increase in the enzyme activity. Although W125F/F163W showed 5 °C reduction in the optimal temperature, it still preserves similar thermostability and is more active than the wild-type enzyme at temperatures lower than 60 °C. These properties make the double mutant a suitable candidate for commercial applications that involve lower operating temperatures. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of N-glycosylation on the thermostability of XynCDBFV when expressed in the yeast strain Pichia pastoris for industrial use. Two potential glycosylation sites (Asn-37 and Asn-88) were examined, and their roles in enzyme performance were validated. We found that the N-glycosylations of XynCDBFV are related to both catalytic activity and heat stability, with Asn-37 motif playing a dominant role. Collectively, the enzymatic properties of XynCDBFV were improved by molecular engineering, and the influences of N-glycosylations on the enzyme have been clearly elucidated herein. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Cheng Y.-S.,National Taiwan University | Ko T.-P.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Wu T.-H.,Genozyme Biotechnology Inc. | Ma Y.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology | And 6 more authors.
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics | Year: 2011

Cellulases have been used in many applications to treat various carbohydrate-containing materials. Thermotoga maritima cellulase 12A (TmCel12A) belongs to the GH12 family of glycoside hydrolases. It is a β-1,4-endoglucanase that degrades cellulose molecules into smaller fragments, facilitating further utilization of the carbohydrate. Because of its hyperthermophilic nature, the enzyme is especially suitable for industrial applications. Here the crystal structure of TmCel12A was determined by using an active-site mutant E134C and its mercury-containing derivatives. It adopts a β-jellyroll protein fold typical of the GH12-family enzymes, with two curved β-sheets A and B and a central active-site cleft. Structural comparison with other GH12 enzymes shows significant differences, as found in two longer and highly twisted β-strands B8 and B9 and several loops. A unique Loop A3-B3 that contains Arg60 and Tyr61 stabilizes the substrate by hydrogen bonding and stacking, as observed in the complex crystals with cellotetraose and cellobiose. The high-resolution structures allow clear elucidation of the network of interactions between the enzyme and its substrate. The sugar residues bound to the enzyme appear to be more ordered in the -2 and -1 subsites than in the +1, +2 and -3 subsites. In the E134C crystals the bound -1 sugar at the cleavage site consistently show the α-anomeric configuration, implicating an intermediate-like structure. Proteins 2011; © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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