Genotyping Unit

Madrid, Spain

Genotyping Unit

Madrid, Spain
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Osorio A.,Human Genetics Group | Milne R.L.,Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group | Alonso R.,Genotyping Unit | Pita G.,Genotyping Unit | And 73 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in DNA repair are good candidates to be tested as phenotypic modifiers for carriers of mutations in the high-risk susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. The base excision repair (BER) pathway could be particularly interesting given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the pathway, PARP1, and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In this study, we have evaluated the XRCC1 gene that participates in the BER pathway, as phenotypic modifier of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Methods: Three common SNPs in the gene, c.-77C>T (rs3213245) p.Arg280His (rs25489) and p.Gln399Arg (rs25487) were analysed in a series of 701 BRCA1 and 576 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results: An association was observed between p.Arg280His-rs25489 and breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers, with rare homozygotes at increased risk relative to common homozygotes (hazard ratio: 22.3, 95% confidence interval: 14.3-34, P<0.001). This association was further tested in a second series of 4480 BRCA1 and 3016 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2.Conclusions and inteNo evidence of association was found when the larger series was analysed which lead us to conclude that none of the three SNPs are significant modifiers of breast cancer risk for mutation carriers. © 2011 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved.

Landa I.,Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group | Montero-Conde C.,Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group | Malanga D.,University of Catanzaro | Malanga D.,Institute for Genetic Research IRGS | And 13 more authors.
Endocrine-Related Cancer | Year: 2010

The aim of this study is to assess if common genetic variants located in the CDKN1B locus, coding for the cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1, are involved in thyroid cancer susceptibility. Based on the literature and functional predictions, we selected three polymorphisms within the CDKN1B gene (rs2066827 (T326G, V109G), rs34330 (-79CO>T) and rs36228499 (-838CO>A)) to perform the first case-control study in thyroid cancer involving this locus. We had 649 Spanish patients with sporadic thyroid cancer and 385 healthy representative controls available. Luciferase reporter gene assays, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunoblot experiments were carried out to demonstrate the putative effect of the associated variant. The polymorphism rs34330 (-79CO>T) was identified as a risk factor for developing the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC), fitting a recessive model (odds ratio=2.12; 95% confidence interval=1.09-4.15; P value=0.023). The risk allele (T) of this single nucleotide polymorphism led to a lower transcription rate in cells transfected with a luciferase reporter driven by the polymorphic p27Kip1 promoter (P value <0.001). This effect was observed in -79TT genotype control carriers, who showed a tendency towards lower CDKN1B mRNA levels in lymphocytes, as well as at the protein level. This is the first study that identifies CDKN1B as a low-penetrance gene in thyroid cancer, and specifically in FVPTC subtype. We propose a reduced CDKN1B gene transcription depending on the genotype of the -79C>OT (rs34330) variant as a novel mechanism underlying p27Kip1 downregulation. © 2010 Society for Endocrinology.

Rodrigues P.,INCLIVA Biomedical Research Institute | de Marco G.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Valencia Incliva Biomedical Research Institute | Furriol J.,INCLIVA Biomedical Research Institute | Furriol J.,University of Bergen | And 11 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Alterations in the redox balance are involved in the origin, promotion and progression of cancer. Inter-individual differences in the oxidative stress regulation can explain a part of the variability in cancer susceptibility. Methods: We have analyzed 76 single base polymorphisms located in 27 genes involved in oxidative stress regulation by SNPlex technology. First, we have tested all the selected SNPs in 493 breast cancer patients and 683 controls and we have replicated the significant results in a second independent set of samples (430 patients and 803 controls). Gene-gene interactions were performed by the multifactor dimensionality reduction approach. Results: Six polymorphisms rs1052133 (OGG1), rs406113 and rs974334 (GPX6), rs2284659 (SOD3), rs4135225 (TXN) and rs207454 (XDH) were significant in the global analysis. The gene-gene interactions demonstrated a significant four-variant interaction among rs406113 (GPX6), rs974334 (GPX6), rs105213 (OGG1) and rs2284659 (SOD3) (p-value = 0.0008) with high-risk genotype combination showing increased risk for breast cancer (OR = 1.75 [95% CI; 1.26-2.44]). Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that different genotypes in genes of the oxidant/antioxidant pathway could affect the susceptibility to breast cancer. Furthermore, our study highlighted the importance of the analysis of the epistatic interactions to define with more accuracy the influence of genetic variants in susceptibility to breast cancer. © 2014 Rodrigues et al.

Osorio A.,Human Genetics Group | Endt D.,University of Würzburg | Fernandez F.,Human Genetics Group | Eirich K.,University of Würzburg | And 7 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2012

RAD51C was defined by Meindl et al. in 2010 as a high-risk gene involved in hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Although this role seems to be clear, nowadays there is controversy about the indication of including the gene in routine clinical genetic testing, due to the lower prevalence or the absence of mutations found in subsequent studies. Here, we present the results of a comprehensive mutational screening of the RAD51C gene in a large series of 785 Spanish breast and/or ovarian cancer families, which, in contrast to the various subsequent studies published to date, includes the functional characterization of suspicious missense variants as reported in the initial study. We have detected 1.3% mutations of RAD51C in breast and ovarian cancer families, while mutations in breast cancer only families seem to be very rare. More than half of the deleterious variants detected were of missense type, which highlights their significance in the gene, and suggest that RAD51C mutations may have been so far partially disregarded and their prevalence underestimated due to the lack of functional complementation assays. Our results provide new evidences, suggesting that the genetic testing of RAD51C should be considered for inclusion into the clinical setting, at least for breast and ovarian cancer families, and encourage re-evaluating its role incorporating functional assays. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

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