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Shanghai, China

Qi F.,Shenzhen University | Qi F.,Peking University | Qi F.,Shantou University | Liu Y.,Shenzhen University | And 24 more authors.
Tumor Biology | Year: 2014

Numerous attempts for detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC) have been made to develop reliable assays for early diagnosis of cancers. In this study, we validated the application of folate receptor α (FRα) as the tumor marker to detect CTC through tumor-specific ligand PCR (LT-PCR) and assessed its utility for diagnosis of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Immunohistochemistry for FRα was performed on ten bladder TCC tissues. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for FRα was performed on both urine and serum specimens from bladder TCC patients (n=64 and n=20, respectively) and healthy volunteers (n=20 and n=23, respectively). Western blot analysis and qRT-PCR were performed to confirm the expression of FRα in bladder TCC cells. CTC values in 3-mL peripheral blood were measured in 57 bladder TCC patients, 48 healthy volunteers, and 15 subjects with benign urologic pathologies by the folate receptor α ligand-targeted PCR. We found that FRα protein was overexpressed in both bladder TCC cells and tissues. The levels of FRα mRNA were also much higher in bladder cancer cell lines 5637 and SW780 than those of leukocyte. Values of FRα were higher in both serum and urine specimens of bladder TCC patients than those of control. CTC values were also higher in 3-mL peripheral blood of bladder TCC patients than those of control (median 26.5 Cu/3 mL vs 14.0 Cu/3 mL). Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for bladder TCC detection was 0.819, 95 % CI (0.738-0.883). At the cutoff value of 15.43 Cu/3 mL, the sensitivity and the specificity for detecting bladder cancer are 82.14 and 61.9 %, respectively. We concluded that quantitation of CTCs through FRα ligand-PCR could be a promising method for noninvasive diagnosis of bladder TCC. © 2014 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM).

Lou J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Ben S.,Nantong University | Ben S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Yang G.,GenoSaber Biotech Co. | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Quantification of circulating tumor cells (CTC) is valuable for evaluation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The sensitivity of current methods constrains their use to detect rare CTCs in early stage. Here we evaluate a novel method, ligand-targeted polymerase chain reaction (LT-PCR), that can detect rare CTCs in NSCLC patients. Methods: CTCs were enriched by immunomagnetic depletion of leukocytes and then labeled by a conjugate of a tumorspecific ligand and an oligonucleotide. After washing off free conjugates, the bound conjugates were stripped from CTCs and then analyzed by qPCR. To evaluate the clinical utility, blood samples were obtained from 72 NSCLC patients (33 initially diagnosed and 39 on chemotherapy), 20 benign patients, and 24 healthy donors. Results: Experiments with healthy blood spiked with tumor cells indicated the LT-PCR allows specific detection of CTC. The clinical study showed that the initially diagnosed patients have an average of 20.8 CTC units with metastatic diseases, 11.8 CTC units with localized diseases, and 6.0 CTC units with benign diseases. With the threshold of 8.5 CTC units, the assay can detect 80% of stage I/II, 67% of stage III, and 93% of stage IV cancer. With the benign patients and healthy donors as control group, the method can detect cancer with a sensitivity of 81.8% and a specificity of 93.2%. Conclusion: The LT-PCR would allow quantification of CTC in NSCLC patients at a more sensitive level, providing a potential tool for stratifying malignant lung diseases, especially at early stage. Copyright: © 2013 Lou et al.

Yu Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Chen Z.,Peking Union Medical College | Dong J.,Peking Union Medical College | Wei P.,GenoSaber Biotech Co. | And 11 more authors.
Translational Oncology | Year: 2013

The study aims to determine the efficacy and feasibility of a novel folate receptor (FR)-based circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection method in the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). CTCs were collected from 3 ml of blood based on negative enrichment by immunomagnetic beads and then labeled by a conjugate of a tumor-specific ligand folate and an oligonucleotide. After washing off redundant conjugates, the bound conjugates were removed and analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The captured cells were validated as tumor cells by immunofluorescence staining. In the evaluation of clinical utility, the results showed that the CTC levels of 153 patients with NSCLC were significantly higher than the controls (49 healthy donors and 64 patients with benign lung diseases; P <.001). With a threshold of 8.64 CTC units, the method showed a sensitivity of 73.2% and a specificity of 84.1% in the diagnosis of NSCLC, especially a sensitivity of 67.2% in stage I disease. Compared with the existing clinical biomarkers such as neuron-specific enolase (NSE), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), cyfra21-1, and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag), the method showed the highest diagnostic efficiency (area under the curve, 0.823; 95% confidence interval, 0.773-0.874). Together, our results demonstrated that FR-positive CTCs were feasible diagnostic biomarkers in patients with NSCLC, as well as in early-stage tumors. © 2013 Neoplasia Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

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