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Lainate, Italy

Zanettini C.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Carola V.,Mouse Biology Unit | Carola V.,European Center for Brain Research | Lo Iacono L.,Mouse Biology Unit | And 5 more authors.
Genes, Brain and Behavior | Year: 2010

Mice lacking the serotonin receptor 1A (Htr1a knockout, Htr1aKO) show increased innate and conditioned anxiety. This phenotype depends on functional receptor activity during the third through fifth weeks of life and thus appears to be the result of long-term changes in brain function as a consequence of an early deficit in serotonin signaling. To evaluate whether this phenotype can be influenced by early environmental factors, we subjected Htr1a knockout mice to postnatal handling, a procedure known to reduce anxiety-like behavior and stress responses in adulthood. Offspring of heterozygous Htr1a knockout mice were separated from their mother and exposed 15 min each day from postnatal day 1 (PD1) to PD14 to clean bedding. Control animals were left undisturbed. Maternal behavior was observed during the first 13 days of life. Adult male offspring were tested in the open field, social approach and resident-intruder tests and assessed for corticosterone response to restraint stress. Knockout mice showed increased anxiety in the open field and in the social approach test as well as an enhanced corticosterone response to stress. However, while no effect of postnatal handling was seen in wild-type mice, handling reduced anxiety-like behavior in the social interaction test and the corticosterone response to stress in knockout mice. These findings extend the anxiety phenotype of Htr1aKO mice to include social anxiety and demonstrate that this phenotype can be moderated by early environmental factors. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society. Source

Falcone G.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Felsani A.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Felsani A.,Genomnia Srl | D'Agnano I.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2015

A class of small non-coding RNAs, the microRNAs (miRNAs), have recently attracted great attention in cancer research since they play a central role in regulation of gene-expression and miRNA aberrant expression is found in almost all types of human cancer. The discovery of circulating miRNAs in body fluids and the finding that they are often tumor specific and can be detected early in tumorigenesis has soon led to the evaluation of their possible use as cancer biomarkers and treatment-response predictors. The evidence that tumor cells communicate via the secretion and delivery of miRNAs packed into tumor-released microvesicles has prompted to investigate miRNA contribution as signaling molecules to the establishment and maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and the metastatic niche in cancer. In this review we highlight the recent advances on the role of exosomal miRNAs as mediators of cancer cell-to-cell communication. © 2015 Falcone et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

Bashamboo A.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Brauner R.,University of Paris Descartes | Bignon-Topalovic J.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Lortat-Jacob S.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris | And 4 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2014

In recent years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of genetics of mammalian gonad development; however, the underlying genetic aetiology in the majority of patients with 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) still remains unknown. Based onmouse models, it has been hypothesized that haploinsufficiency of the Friend ofGATA2 (FOG2) gene could lead to 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis on specific inbred genetic backgrounds. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified independent missense mutations in FOG2 in two patients with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. One patient carried a non-synonymous heterozygous mutation (p.S402R), while the other patient carried a heterozygous p.R260Q mutation and a homozygous p.M544I mutation. Functional studies indicated that the failure of testis development in these cases could be explained by the impaired ability of the mutant FOG2 proteins to interact with a known regulator of early testis development, GATA4. This is the first example of mutations in the coding sequence of FOG2 associated with 46,XY DSD in human and adds to the list of genes in the human known to be associated with DSD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Voellenkle C.,Laboratorio Of Cardiologia Molecolare | Van Rooij J.,Laboratorio Of Cardiologia Molecolare | Guffanti A.,Genomnia Srl | Brini E.,Genomnia Srl | And 8 more authors.
RNA | Year: 2012

In order to understand the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in vascular physiopathology, we took advantage of deep-sequencing techniques to accurately and comprehensively profile the entire miRNA population expressed by endothelial cells exposed to hypoxia. SOLiD sequencing of small RNAs derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to 1% O 2 or normoxia for 24 h yielded more than 22 million reads per library. A customized bioinformatic pipeline identified more than 400 annotated microRNA/ microRNA*species with a broad abundance range: miR-21 and miR-126 totaled almost 40% of all miRNAs. A complex repertoire of isomiRs was found, displaying also 5′ variations, potentially affecting target recognition. Highstringency bioinformatic analysis identified microRNA candidates, whose predicted pre-miRNAs folded into a stable hairpin. Validation of a subset by qPCR identified 18 high-confidence novel miRNAs as detectable in independent HUVEC cultures and associated to the RISC complex. The expression of two novel miRNAs was significantly down-modulated by hypoxia, while miR- 210 was significantly induced. Gene ontology analysis of their predicted targets revealed a significant association to hypoxiainducible factor signaling, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Overexpression of the novel miRNAs in hypoxic endothelial cells affected cell growth and confirmed the biological relevance of their down-modulation. In conclusion, deep-sequencing accurately profiled known, variant, and novel microRNAs expressed by endothelial cells in normoxia and hypoxia. Source

Soreq L.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Guffanti A.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Guffanti A.,Genomnia Srl | Salomonis N.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Computational Biology | Year: 2014

The continuously prolonged human lifespan is accompanied by increase in neurodegenerative diseases incidence, calling for the development of inexpensive blood-based diagnostics. Analyzing blood cell transcripts by RNA-Seq is a robust means to identify novel biomarkers that rapidly becomes a commonplace. However, there is lack of tools to discover novel exons, junctions and splicing events and to precisely and sensitively assess differential splicing through RNA-Seq data analysis and across RNA-Seq platforms. Here, we present a new and comprehensive computational workflow for whole-transcriptome RNA-Seq analysis, using an updated version of the software AltAnalyze, to identify both known and novel high-confidence alternative splicing events, and to integrate them with both protein-domains and microRNA binding annotations. We applied the novel workflow on RNA-Seq data from Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' leukocytes pre- and post- Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) treatment and compared to healthy controls. Disease-mediated changes included decreased usage of alternative promoters and N-termini, 5′-end variations and mutually-exclusive exons. The PD regulated FUS and HNRNP A/B included prion-like domains regulated regions. We also present here a workflow to identify and analyze long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) via RNA-Seq data. We identified reduced lncRNA expression and selective PD-induced changes in 13 of over 6,000 detected leukocyte lncRNAs, four of which were inversely altered post-DBS. These included the U1 spliceosomal lncRNA and RP11-462G22.1, each entailing sequence complementarity to numerous microRNAs. Analysis of RNA-Seq from PD and unaffected controls brains revealed over 7,000 brain-expressed lncRNAs, of which 3,495 were co-expressed in the leukocytes including U1, which showed both leukocyte and brain increases. Furthermore, qRT-PCR validations confirmed these co-increases in PD leukocytes and two brain regions, the amygdala and substantia-nigra, compared to controls. This novel workflow allows deep multi-level inspection of RNA-Seq datasets and provides a comprehensive new resource for understanding disease transcriptome modifications in PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. © 2014 Soreq et al. Source

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