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Milano, Italy

Lara-Pezzi E.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Dopazo A.,Genomics Unit | Manzanares M.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research
DMM Disease Models and Mechanisms | Year: 2012

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality and hospitalization worldwide. Several risk factors have been identified that are strongly associated with the development of CVD. However, these explain only a fraction of cases, and the focus of research into the causes underlying the unexplained risk has shifted first to genetics and more recently to genomics. A genetic contribution to CVD has long been recognized; however, with the exception of certain conditions that show Mendelian inheritance, it has proved more challenging than anticipated to identify the precise genomic components responsible for the development of CVD. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided information about specific genetic variations associated with disease, but these are only now beginning to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms. To fully understand the biological implications of these associations, we need to relate them to the exquisite, multilayered regulation of protein expression, which includes chromatin remodeling, regulatory elements, microRNAs and alternative splicing. Understanding how the information contained in the DNA relates to the operation of these regulatory layers will allow us not only to better predict the development of CVD but also to develop more effective therapies. Source

Kauselmann G.,FARO | Dopazo A.,Genomics Unit | Link W.,TaconicArtemis GmbH
Current Cancer Drug Targets | Year: 2012

The current paradigm for cancer therapy is undergoing a change from non-specific cytotoxic agents to more specific approaches based on unique molecular features of cancer cells. The identification and validation of disease relevant targets are crucial for the development of molecularly targeted anticancer therapies. Advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer together with novel approaches to interfere with signal transduction pathways have opened new horizons for anticancer target discovery. In particular, the image-based large scale analysis of cellular phenotypes that arise from genetic or chemical perturbations paved the way for the identification and validation of disease relevant molecular targets independent of preconceived notions of mechanistic relationships. In addition, novel and sophisticated techniques of genome manipulation allow for the use of mouse models that faithfully recapitulate critical elements of human cancer for target validation in vivo. We believe that these advances will translate into more and better validated drug targets. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Barad S.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Barad S.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Horowitz S.B.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Kobiler I.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Year: 2014

Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mold rot, causes severe postharvest fruit maceration through secretion of D-gluconic acid (GLA) and secondary metabolites such as the mycotoxin patulin in colonized tissue. GLA involvement in pathogenicity has been suggested but the mechanism of patulin accumulation and its contribution to P. expansum pathogenicity remain unclear. The roles of GLA and patulin accumulation in P. expansum pathogenicity were studied using i) glucose oxidase GOX2-RNAi mutants exhibiting decreased GOX2 expression, GLA accumulation, and reduced pathogenicity; ii) IDH-RNAi mutants exhibiting downregulation of IDH (the last gene in patulin biosynthesis), reduced patulin accumulation, and no effect on GLA level; and iii) PACC-RNAi mutants exhibiting downregulation of both GOX2 and IDH that reduced GLA and patulin production. Present results indicate that conditions enhancing the decrease in GLA accumulation by GOX2- RNAi and PACC-RNAi mutants, and not low pH, affected patulin accumulation, suggesting GLA production as the driving force for further patulin accumulation. Thus, it is suggested that GLA accumulation may modulate patulin synthesis as a direct precursor under dynamic pH conditions modulating the activation of the transcription factor PACC and the consequent pathogenicity factors, which contribute to host-tissue colonization by P. expansum. © 2014 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

Morillo-Huesca M.,CABIMER CSIC | Clemente-Ruiz M.,CABIMER CSIC | Andujar E.,Genomics Unit | Prado F.,CABIMER CSIC
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

The SWR1 complex replaces the canonical histone H2A with the variant H2A.Z (Htz1 in yeast) at specific chromatin regions. This dynamic alteration in nucleosome structure provides a molecular mechanism to regulate transcription, gene silencing, chromosome segregation and DNA repair. Here we show that genetic instability, sensitivity to drugs impairing different cellular processes and genome-wide transcriptional misregulation in htz1Δ can be partially or totally suppressed if SWR1 is not formed (swr1Δ), if it forms but cannot bind to chromatin (swc2Δ) or if it binds to chromatin but lacks histone replacement activity (swc5Δ and the ATPase-dead swr1-K727G). These results suggest that in htz1Δ the nucleosome remodelling activity of SWR1 affects chromatin integrity because of an attempt to replace H2A with Htz1 in the absence of the latter. This would impair transcription and, either directly or indirectly, other cellular processes. Specifically, we show that in htz1Δ, the SWR1 complex causes an accumulation of recombinogenic DNA damage by a mechanism dependent on phosphorylation of H2A at Ser129, a modification that occurs in response to DNA damage, suggesting that the SWR1 complex impairs the repair of spontaneous DNA damage in htz1Δ. In addition, SWR1 causes DSBs sensitivity in htz1Δ; consistently, in the absence of Htz1 the SWR1 complex bound near an endonuclease HO-induced DSB at the mating-type (MAT) locus impairs DSB-induced checkpoint activation. Our results support a stepwise mechanism for the replacement of H2A with Htz1 and demonstrate that a tight control of this mechanism is essential to regulate chromatin dynamics but also to prevent the deleterious consequences of an incomplete nucleosome remodelling. © 2010 Morillo-Huesca et al. Source

Sanchez-Cabo F.,Genomics Unit
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

Transcriptomics has played an essential role as proof of concept in the development of experimental and bioinformatics approaches for the generation and analysis of Omics data. We are giving an introduction on how large-scale technologies for gene expression profiling, especially microarrays, have changed the view from studying single molecular events to a systems level view of global mechanisms in a cell, the biological processes, and their pathological mutations. The main platforms available for gene expression profiling (from microarrays to RNA-seq) are presented and the general concepts that need to be taken into account for proper data analysis in order to extract objective and general conclusions from transcriptomics experiments are introduced. We also describe the available main bioinformatics resources used for this purpose. Source

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