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Callejas S.,Genomics Unit | Dopazo A.,Genomics Unit
Oncogene | Year: 2010

FOXO transcription factors are evolutionarily conserved proteins that orchestrate gene expression programs known to control a variety of cellular processes such as cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA repair and protection from oxidative stress. As the abrogation of FOXO function is a key feature of many tumor cells, regulation of FOXO factors is receiving increasing attention in cancer research. In order to discover genes involved in the regulation of FOXO activity, we performed a large-scale RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) screen using cell-based reporter systems that monitor transcriptional activity and subcellular localization of FOXO. We identified genes previously implicated in phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling events, which are known to be important for FOXO function. In addition, we discovered a previously unrecognized FOXO-repressor function of TRIB2, the mammalian homolog of the Drosophila gene tribbles. A cancer-profiling array revealed specific overexpression of TRIB2 in malignant melanoma, but not in other types of skin cancer. We provide experimental evidence that TRIB2 transcript levels correlate with the degree of cytoplasmic localization of FOXO3a. Moreover, we show that TRIB2 is important in the maintenance of the oncogenic properties of melanoma cells, as its silencing reduces cell proliferation, colony formation and wound healing. Tumor growth was also substantially reduced upon RNAi-mediated TRIB2 knockdown in an in vivo melanoma xenograft model. Our studies suggest that TRIB2 provides the melanoma cells with growth and survival advantages through the abrogation of FOXO function. Altogether, our results show the potential of large-scale cell-based RNAi screens to identify promising diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Lopez-Romero P.,Genomics Unit | Fernandez-Gutierrez B.,Hospital Clinico San Carlos | Dopazo A.,Genomics Unit
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2011

In spite of the extensive potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in cell therapy, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate their therapeutic properties. We aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in controlling the transition between the resting and reparative phenotypes of hMSCs, hypothesizing that these miRNAs must be present in the undifferentiated cells and downregulated to allow initiation of distinct activation/ differentiation programs. Differential miRNA expression analyses revealed that miR-335 is significantly downregulated upon hMSC differentiation. In addition, hMSCs derived from a variety of tissues express miR-335 at a higher level than human skin fibroblasts, and overexpression of miR-335 in hMSCs inhibited their proliferation and migration, as well as their osteogenic and adipogenic potential. Expression of miR-335 in hMSCs was upregulated by the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, a positive regulator of MSC self-renewal, and downregulated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ), a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has an important role in activating the immunomodulatory properties of hMSCs. Differential gene expression analyses, in combination with computational searches, defined a cluster of 62 putative target genes for miR-335 in hMSCs. Western blot and 3′UTR reporter assays confirmed RUNX2 as a direct target of miR-335 in hMSCs. These results strongly suggest that miR-335 downregulation is critical for the acquisition of reparative MSC phenotypes. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Lara-Pezzi E.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Dopazo A.,Genomics Unit | Manzanares M.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research
DMM Disease Models and Mechanisms | Year: 2012

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality and hospitalization worldwide. Several risk factors have been identified that are strongly associated with the development of CVD. However, these explain only a fraction of cases, and the focus of research into the causes underlying the unexplained risk has shifted first to genetics and more recently to genomics. A genetic contribution to CVD has long been recognized; however, with the exception of certain conditions that show Mendelian inheritance, it has proved more challenging than anticipated to identify the precise genomic components responsible for the development of CVD. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided information about specific genetic variations associated with disease, but these are only now beginning to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms. To fully understand the biological implications of these associations, we need to relate them to the exquisite, multilayered regulation of protein expression, which includes chromatin remodeling, regulatory elements, microRNAs and alternative splicing. Understanding how the information contained in the DNA relates to the operation of these regulatory layers will allow us not only to better predict the development of CVD but also to develop more effective therapies.


Barad S.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Barad S.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Horowitz S.B.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Kobiler I.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Year: 2014

Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mold rot, causes severe postharvest fruit maceration through secretion of D-gluconic acid (GLA) and secondary metabolites such as the mycotoxin patulin in colonized tissue. GLA involvement in pathogenicity has been suggested but the mechanism of patulin accumulation and its contribution to P. expansum pathogenicity remain unclear. The roles of GLA and patulin accumulation in P. expansum pathogenicity were studied using i) glucose oxidase GOX2-RNAi mutants exhibiting decreased GOX2 expression, GLA accumulation, and reduced pathogenicity; ii) IDH-RNAi mutants exhibiting downregulation of IDH (the last gene in patulin biosynthesis), reduced patulin accumulation, and no effect on GLA level; and iii) PACC-RNAi mutants exhibiting downregulation of both GOX2 and IDH that reduced GLA and patulin production. Present results indicate that conditions enhancing the decrease in GLA accumulation by GOX2- RNAi and PACC-RNAi mutants, and not low pH, affected patulin accumulation, suggesting GLA production as the driving force for further patulin accumulation. Thus, it is suggested that GLA accumulation may modulate patulin synthesis as a direct precursor under dynamic pH conditions modulating the activation of the transcription factor PACC and the consequent pathogenicity factors, which contribute to host-tissue colonization by P. expansum. © 2014 The American Phytopathological Society.


Herrera-Merchan A.,Stem Cell Aging Group | Arranz L.,Stem Cell Aging Group | Ligos J.M.,Cellomic Unit | De Molina A.,Animal Unit | And 2 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2012

Recent evidence shows increased and decreased expression of Ezh2 in cancer, suggesting a dual role as an oncogene or tumour suppressor. To investigate the mechanism by which Ezh2-mediated H3K27 methylation leads to cancer, we generated conditional Ezh2 knock-in (Ezh2-KI) mice. Here we show that induced Ezh2 haematopoietic expression increases the number and proliferation of repopulating haematopoietic stem cells. Ezh2-KI mice develop myeloproliferative disorder, featuring excessive myeloid expansion in bone marrow and spleen, leukocytosis and splenomegaly. Competitive and serial transplantations demonstrate progressive myeloid commitment of Ezh2-KI haematopoietic stem cells. Transplanted self-renewing haematopoietic stem cells from Ezh2-KI mice induce myeloproliferative disorder, suggesting that the Ezh2 gain-of-function arises in the haematopoietic stem cell pool, and not at later stages of myelopoiesis. At the molecular level, Ezh2 regulates haematopoietic stem cell-specific genes such as Evi-1 and Ntrk3, aberrantly found in haematologic malignancies. These results demonstrate a stem cell-specific Ezh2 oncogenic role in myeloid disorders, and suggest possible therapeutic applications in Ezh2-related haematological malignancies. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Morillo-Huesca M.,CABIMER CSIC | Clemente-Ruiz M.,CABIMER CSIC | Andujar E.,Genomics Unit | Prado F.,CABIMER CSIC
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

The SWR1 complex replaces the canonical histone H2A with the variant H2A.Z (Htz1 in yeast) at specific chromatin regions. This dynamic alteration in nucleosome structure provides a molecular mechanism to regulate transcription, gene silencing, chromosome segregation and DNA repair. Here we show that genetic instability, sensitivity to drugs impairing different cellular processes and genome-wide transcriptional misregulation in htz1Δ can be partially or totally suppressed if SWR1 is not formed (swr1Δ), if it forms but cannot bind to chromatin (swc2Δ) or if it binds to chromatin but lacks histone replacement activity (swc5Δ and the ATPase-dead swr1-K727G). These results suggest that in htz1Δ the nucleosome remodelling activity of SWR1 affects chromatin integrity because of an attempt to replace H2A with Htz1 in the absence of the latter. This would impair transcription and, either directly or indirectly, other cellular processes. Specifically, we show that in htz1Δ, the SWR1 complex causes an accumulation of recombinogenic DNA damage by a mechanism dependent on phosphorylation of H2A at Ser129, a modification that occurs in response to DNA damage, suggesting that the SWR1 complex impairs the repair of spontaneous DNA damage in htz1Δ. In addition, SWR1 causes DSBs sensitivity in htz1Δ; consistently, in the absence of Htz1 the SWR1 complex bound near an endonuclease HO-induced DSB at the mating-type (MAT) locus impairs DSB-induced checkpoint activation. Our results support a stepwise mechanism for the replacement of H2A with Htz1 and demonstrate that a tight control of this mechanism is essential to regulate chromatin dynamics but also to prevent the deleterious consequences of an incomplete nucleosome remodelling. © 2010 Morillo-Huesca et al.


Lopez-Huertas M.R.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Callejas S.,Genomics Unit | Abia D.,Bioinformatics Unit | Mateos E.,Institute Salud Carlos III | And 3 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2010

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) regulator Tat is essential for viral replication because it achieves complete elongation of viral transcripts. Tat can be released to the extracellular space and taken up by adjacent cells, exerting profound cytoskeleton rearrangements that lead to apoptosis. In contrast, intracellular Tat has been described as protector from apoptosis. Tat gene is composed by two coding exons that yield a protein of 101 amino acids (aa). First exon (1-72aa) is sufficient for viral transcript elongation and second exon (73-101 aa) appears to contribute to non-transcriptional functions. We observed that Jurkat cells stably expressing intracellular Tat101 showed gene expression deregulation 4-fold higher than cells expressing Tat72. Functional experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of this deregulation. First, NF-iB-, NF-AT- and Sp1-dependent transcriptional activities were greatly enhanced in Jurkat-Tat101, whereas Tat72 induced milder but efficient activation. Second, cytoskeleton-related functions as cell morphology, proliferation, chemotaxis, polarization and actin polymerization were deeply altered in Jurkat-Tat101, but not in Jurkat-Tat72. Finally, expression of several cell surface receptors was dramatically impaired by intracellular Tat101 but not by Tat72. Consequently, these modifications were greatly dependent on Tat second exon and they could be related to the anergy observed in HIV-1-infected T cells. © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.


Pinto C.,Genomics Unit | Gomes A.C.,Genomics Unit
BioControl | Year: 2016

Plants naturally harbours a complex microbial ecosystem or plant microbiome, as neutral, beneficial or pathogens microorganisms, that are in a close interaction with the plant. The balance of these interactions is a key element for plant health, plant growth and productivity although several factors as ecological and environmental factors represents important drivers of the microorganism’s community. Herein, a review on plant microbiome is presented, and the case study of Vitis vinifera (grapevine) is presented as an example of the application of the study of a woody plant microbiome. Overall, new ecologically and sustainable strategies for agriculture are needed. The exploitation of the natural microbiome associated with plants and the identification of novel potential strains with plant benefits and biocontrol potential represent a challenge and a technological development for crops protection. © 2016 International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC)


Kauselmann G.,FARO | Dopazo A.,Genomics Unit | Link W.,TaconicArtemis GmbH
Current Cancer Drug Targets | Year: 2012

The current paradigm for cancer therapy is undergoing a change from non-specific cytotoxic agents to more specific approaches based on unique molecular features of cancer cells. The identification and validation of disease relevant targets are crucial for the development of molecularly targeted anticancer therapies. Advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer together with novel approaches to interfere with signal transduction pathways have opened new horizons for anticancer target discovery. In particular, the image-based large scale analysis of cellular phenotypes that arise from genetic or chemical perturbations paved the way for the identification and validation of disease relevant molecular targets independent of preconceived notions of mechanistic relationships. In addition, novel and sophisticated techniques of genome manipulation allow for the use of mouse models that faithfully recapitulate critical elements of human cancer for target validation in vivo. We believe that these advances will translate into more and better validated drug targets. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.


Sanchez-Cabo F.,Genomics Unit
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

Transcriptomics has played an essential role as proof of concept in the development of experimental and bioinformatics approaches for the generation and analysis of Omics data. We are giving an introduction on how large-scale technologies for gene expression profiling, especially microarrays, have changed the view from studying single molecular events to a systems level view of global mechanisms in a cell, the biological processes, and their pathological mutations. The main platforms available for gene expression profiling (from microarrays to RNA-seq) are presented and the general concepts that need to be taken into account for proper data analysis in order to extract objective and general conclusions from transcriptomics experiments are introduced. We also describe the available main bioinformatics resources used for this purpose.

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