Elliott M.L.,University of Florida |
Des Jardin E.A.,University of Florida |
O'Donnell K.,Microbial Genomics Research Unit |
Geiser D.M.,Pennsylvania State University |
And 2 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2010
Elliott, M. L., Des Jardin, E. A., O'Donnell, K., Geiser, D. M., Harrison, N. A., and Broschat, T. K. 2010. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. palmarum, a novel forma specialis causing a lethal disease of Syagrus romanzoffiana and Washingtonia robusta in Florida. Plant Dis. 94:31-38. A new disease of Syagrus romanzoffiana (queen palm) and Washingtonia robusta (Mexican fan palm) has spread across the southern half of Florida during the past 5 years. The initial foliar symptom is a one-sided chlorosis or necrosis of older leaf blades, with a distinct reddish-brown stripe along the petiole and rachis and an associated discoloration of internal tissue. Within 2 to 3 months after onset of symptoms, the entire canopy becomes desiccated and necrotic but the leaves do not droop or hang down around the trunk. Based on pathogenicity and morphological and molecular characterization, the etiological agent has been identified as a new forma specialis of Fusarium oxysporum, designated f. sp. palmarum. Sequence analysis of a portion of the translation elongation factor 1-α gene (EF-1α) separated 27 representative isolates into two EF-1α groups, which differed by two transition mutations. Members of both EF-1α groups are pathogenic on both species of palm. A phylogenetic analysis inferred from partial EF-1α sequences from a genetically diverse set of F. oxysporum isolates, including three other formae speciales pathogenic on palm (i.e., f. sp. albedinis, f. sp. canariensis, and f. sp. elaeidis), suggested that f. sp. palmarum and f. sp. albedinis may be more closely related to one another than either is to the two other palm pathogens. © 2010 The American Phytopathological Society.
Revelation by single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping that mutations leading to a premature stop codon in inlA are common among Listeria monocytogenes isolates from ready-to-eat foods but not human listeriosis cases
Van Stelten A.,Colorado State University |
Simpson J.M.,Colorado State University |
Ward T.J.,Microbial Genomics Research Unit |
Nightingale K.K.,Colorado State University
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010
Listeria monocytogenes utilizes internalin A (InlA; encoded by inlA) to cross the intestinal barrier to establish a systemic infection. Multiple naturally occurring mutations leading to a premature stop codon (PMSC) in inlA have been reported worldwide, and these mutations are causally associated with attenuated virulence. Five inlA PMSC mutations recently discovered among isolates from France and the United States were included as additional markers in our previously described inlA single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay. This assay was used to screen > 1,000 L. monocytogenes isolates from ready-to-eat (RTE) foods (n = 502) and human listeriosis cases (n = 507) for 18 inlA PMSC mutations. A significantly (P < 0.0001) greater proportion of RTE food isolates (45.0%) carried a PMSC mutation in inlA compared to human clinical isolates (5.1%). The proportion of L. monocytogenes with or without PMSC mutations in inlA was similar among isolates from different RTE food categories except for deli meats, which included a marginally higher proportion (P = 0.12) of isolates carrying a PMSC in inlA. We also analyzed the distribution of epidemic clone (EC) strains, which have been linked to the majority of listeriosis outbreaks worldwide and are overrepresented among sporadic cases in the United States. We observed a significant (P < 0.05) overrepresentation of EC strains in deli and seafood salads and a significant (P < 0.05) underrepresentation of EC strains in smoked seafood. These results provide important data to predict the human health risk of exposure to L. monocytogenes strains that differ in pathogenic potential through consumption of contaminated RTE foods. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.