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Prlic A.,University of California at San Diego | Yates A.,European Bioinformatics Institute | Bliven S.E.,University of California at San Diego | Rose P.W.,University of California at San Diego | And 12 more authors.
Bioinformatics | Year: 2012

Motivation: BioJava is an open-source project for processing of biological data in the Java programming language. We have recently released a new version (3.0.5), which is a major update to the code base that greatly extends its functionality.Results: BioJava now consists of several independent modules that provide state-of-the-art tools for protein structure comparison, pairwise and multiple sequence alignments, working with DNA and protein sequences, analysis of amino acid properties, detection of protein modifications and prediction of disordered regions in proteins as well as parsers for common file formats using a biologically meaningful data model. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Turnbull D.W.,Genomics Core | Struck A.J.,University of Oregon
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2016

Key points: Histamine is a primordial signalling molecule, capable of activating cells in an autocrine or paracrine fashion via specific cell surface receptors, in a variety of pathways that probably predate its more recent role in innate and adaptive immunity. Although histamine is normally associated with pathological conditions or allergic and anaphylactic reactions, it may contribute beneficially to the normal changes that occur within skeletal muscle during the recovery from exercise. We show that the human response to exercise includes an altered expression of thousands of protein-coding genes, and much of this response appears to be driven by histamine. Histamine may be an important molecular transducer contributing to many of the adaptations that accompany chronic exercise training. Histamine is a primordial signalling molecule, capable of activating cells in an autocrine or paracrine fashion via specific cell surface receptors. In humans, aerobic exercise is followed by a post-exercise activation of histamine H1 and H2 receptors localized to the previously exercised muscle. This could trigger a broad range of cellular adaptations in response to exercise. Thus, we exploited RNA sequencing to explore the effects of H1 and H2 receptor blockade on the exercise transcriptome in human skeletal muscle tissue harvested from the vastus lateralis. We found that exercise exerts a profound influence on the human transcriptome, causing the differential expression of more than 3000 protein-coding genes. The influence of histamine blockade post-exercise was notable for 795 genes that were differentially expressed between the control and blockade condition, which represents >25% of the number responding to exercise. The broad histamine footprint on the human exercise transcriptome crosses many cellular functions, including inflammation, vascular function, metabolism, and cellular maintenance. © 2016 The Physiological Society.

Shan J.,Laboratory of Genetic Medicine and Immunology | DSouza S.P.,Laboratory of Genetic Medicine and Immunology | Bakhru S.,Brown University | Al-Azwani E.K.,Genomics Core | And 14 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Although the linkage between germline mutations of BRCA1 and hereditary breast/ovarian cancers is well established, recent evidence suggests that altered expression of wild-type BRCA1 might contribute to the sporadic forms of breast cancer. The breast cancer gene trinucleotide-repeat-containing 9 (TNRC9; TOX3) has been associated with disease susceptibility but its function is undetermined. Here, we report that TNRC9 is often amplified and overexpressed in breast cancer, particularly in advanced breast cancer. Gene amplification was associated with reduced disease-free and metastasis-free survival rates. Ectopic expression of TNRC9 increased breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and survival after exposure to apoptotic stimuli. These phenotypes were associated with tumor progression in a mouse model of breast cancer. Gene expression profiling, protein analysis, and in silico assays of large datasets of breast and ovarian cancer samples suggested that TNRC9 and BRCA1 expression were inversely correlated. Notably, we found that TNRC9 bound to both the BRCA1 promoter and the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) complex, a regulator of BRCA1 transcription. In support of this connection, expression of TNRC9 downregulated expression of BRCA1 by altering the methylation status of its promoter. Our studies unveil a function for TNRC9 in breast cancer that highlights a new paradigm in BRCA1 regulation. Cancer Res; 73(9); 2840-9. © 2013 AACR.

Billingsley C.N.,Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis | Allen J.R.,Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis | Baumann D.D.,Purdue University | Deitz S.L.,Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013

Trisomy 21 in humans causes cognitive impairment, craniofacial dysmorphology, and heart defects collectively referred to as Down syndrome. Yet, the pathophysiology of these phenotypes is not well understood. Craniofacial alterations may lead to complications in breathing, eating, and communication. Ts65Dn mice exhibit craniofacial alterations that model Down syndrome including a small mandible. We show that Ts65Dn embryos at 13.5 days gestation (E13.5) have a smaller mandibular precursor but a normal sized tongue as compared to euploid embryos, suggesting a relative instead of actual macroglossia originates during development. Neurological tissues were also altered in E13.5 trisomic embryos. Our array analysis found 155 differentially expressed non-trisomic genes in the trisomic E13.5 mandible, including 20 genes containing a homeobox DNA binding domain. Additionally, Sox9, important in skeletal formation and cell proliferation, was upregulated in Ts65Dn mandible precursors. Our results suggest trisomy causes altered expression of non-trisomic genes in development leading to structural changes associated with DS. Identification of genetic pathways disrupted by trisomy is an important step in proposing rational therapies at relevant time points to ameliorate craniofacial abnormalities in DS and other congenital disorders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ahmed I.,Weill Cornell Medicine Qatar | Karedath T.,Weill Cornell Medicine Qatar | Andrews S.S.,Weill Cornell Medicine Qatar | Al-Azwani I.K.,Genomics Core | And 4 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2016

Recently, a class of endogenous species of RNA called circular RNA (circRNA) has been shown to regulate gene expression in mammals and their role in cellular function is just beginning to be understood. To investigate the role of circRNAs in ovarian cancer, we performed paired-end RNA sequencing of primary sites, peritoneal and lymph node metastases from three patients with stage IIIC ovarian cancer. We developed an in-house computational pipeline to identify and characterize the circRNA expression from paired-end RNA-Seq libraries. This pipeline revealed thousands of circular isoforms in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma (EOC). These circRNAs are enriched for potentially effective miRNA seed matches. A significantly larger number of circRNAs are differentially expressed between tumor sites than mRNAs. Circular and linear expression exhibits an inverse trend for many cancer related pathways and signaling pathways like NFkB, PI3k/AKT and TGF-β typically activated for mRNA in metastases are inhibited for circRNA expression. Further, circRNAs show a more robust expression pattern across patients than mRNA forms indicating their suitability as biomarkers in highly heterogeneous cancer transcriptomes. The consistency of circular RNA expression may offer new candidates for cancer treatment and prognosis.

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