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Mutter G.L.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Monte N.M.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Neuberg D.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Ferenczy A.,McGill University | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Sporadic somatic inactivation of genes such as PTEN within histologically normal endometrium (latent precancers) is an early step in endometrial carcinogenesis. We have used clone-specific mutations of PTEN to determine the fate of latent precancers over time in women who do (high risk) and do not (low risk) develop endometrial neoplasia. PTEN immunohistochemistry was performed on 45 occurrences of endometrial neoplasia and their paired antecedent benign biopsies, along with age matched sample pairs from 167 patients who did not develop a neoplasm. When PTEN-deficient cells were present at both time points, DNA sequencing was performed to determine whether they were single or multiple independent events. Loss of PTEN protein in isolated glands was common in the initial normal biopsies of high- and low-risk groups (42% and 27%, respectively, P = 0.066). Protein-deficient glands have a tendency to disappear over time in low-risk women (P = 0.047) and, even when "persistent," are infrequently (19%, 3/16) confirmed to be the same clone. Similarly, only a small proportion (6.7%, 1/15) of latent precancers seen in high-risk women are the direct progenitors of subsequent neoplasia. There is a high rate of latent precancer turnover in both low- and high-risk patients, with rare long-term persistence of unique clones, which may or may not progress to a histologic lesion. The temporal dynamics of clonal emergence, persistence, and involution are sufficiently complex that in the individual patient, the presence of a latent precancer has an unknown contribution to long-term cancer risk. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research. Source


Zhang W.-M.,Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute | Natowicz M.R.,Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute | Natowicz M.R.,Cleveland Clinic | Natowicz M.R.,Genomic Medicine Institute | Natowicz M.R.,Pediatrics Institute
Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Objectives: Determinations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF lactate:pyruvate (L/P) ratios are important in several clinical settings, yet published normative data have significant limitations. We sought to determine a large dataset of stringently-defined normative data for CSF lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF L/P ratios. Design and methods: We evaluated data from 627 patients who had determinations of CSF lactate and/or CSF pyruvate from 2001 to 2011 at the Cleveland Clinic. Inclusion in the normal reference population required normal CSF cell counts, glucose and protein and routine serum chemistries and absence of progressive brain disorder, epilepsy, or seizure within 24. h. Brain MRI, if done, showed no evidence of tumor, acute changes or basal ganglia abnormality. CSF cytology, CSF alanine and immunoglobulin levels, and oligoclonal band analysis were required to be normal, if done. Various inclusion/exclusion criteria were compared. Results: 92 patients fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria for a reference population. The 95% central intervals (2.5%-97.5%) for CSF lactate and pyruvate levels were 1.01-2.09. mM and 0.03-0.15. mM, respectively, and 9.05-26.37 for CSF L/P. There were no significant gender-related differences of CSF lactate or pyruvate concentrations or of CSF L/P. Weak positive correlations between the concentration of CSF lactate or pyruvate and age were noted. Conclusions: Using stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria, we determined normative data for CSF lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF L/P ratios in a large, well-characterized reference population. Normalcy of routine CSF and blood analytes are the most important parameters in determining reference intervals for CSF lactate and pyruvate. © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Source


Bennett K.L.,Genomic Medicine Institute | Mester J.,Genomic Medicine Institute | Eng C.,Genomic Medicine Institute | Eng C.,Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2010

Context Germline loss-of-function phosphatase and tensin homolog gene (PTEN) mutations cause 80% of Cowden syndrome, a rare autosomal-dominant disorder (1 in 200 000 live births), characterized by high risks of breast, thyroid, and other cancers. A large heterogeneous group of individuals with Cowden-like syndrome, who have various combinations of Cowden syndrome features but who do not meet Cowden syndrome diagnostic criteria, have PTEN mutations less than 10% of the time, making molecular diagnosis, prediction, genetic counseling, and risk management challenging. Other mechanisms of loss of function such as hypermethylation, which should result in underexpression of PTEN or of KILLIN, a novel tumor suppressor transcribed in the opposite direction, may account for the remainder of Cowden syndrome and Cowden-like syndrome. Objective To determine whether germline methylation is found in Cowden syndrome or Cowden-like syndrome in individuals lacking germline PTEN mutations. Design, Setting, and Participants Nucleic acids from prospective nested series of 123 patients with Cowden syndrome or Cowden-like syndrome and 50 unaffected individuals without PTEN variants were analyzed for germline methylation and expression of PTEN and KILLIN at the Cleveland Clinic, August 2008-June 2010. Prevalence of component cancers between groups was compared using the Fisher exact test. Main OutcomeMeasures Frequency of germline methylation in PTEN mutation- negative Cowden syndrome and Cowden syndrome-like individuals. Prevalence of component cancers in methylation-positive and PTEN mutation-positive individuals. Results Of 123 patients with Cowden syndrome or Cowden-like syndrome, 45 (37%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 29%-45%) showed hypermethylation upstream of PTEN but no transcriptional repression. The germline methylation was found to transcriptionally down-regulate KILLIN by 250-fold (95% CI, 45-14 286; P=.007) and exclusively disrupted TP53 activation of KILLIN by 30% (95% CI, 7%-45%; P=.008). Demethylation treatment increased only KILLIN expression 4.88-fold (95% CI, 1.4-18.1; P=.05). Individuals with KILLIN-promoter methylation had a 3-fold increased prevalence of breast cancer (35/42 vs 24/64; P<.0001) and a greater than 2-fold increase of kidney cancer (4/45 vs 6/155; P=.004) over individuals with germline PTEN mutations. Conclusions Germline KILLIN methylation is common among patients with Cowden syndrome or Cowden-like syndrome and is associated with increased risks of breast and renal cancer over PTEN mutation-positive individuals. These observations need to be replicated. © 2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source


Frazier T.W.,Cleveland Clinic | Youngstrom E.A.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Speer L.,Cleveland Clinic | Embacher R.,Cleveland Clinic | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2012

The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of proposed DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We analyzed symptoms from 14,744 siblings (8,911 ASD and 5,863 non-ASD) included in a national registry, the Interactive Autism Network. Youth 2 through 18 years of age were included if at least one child in the family was diagnosed with ASD. Caregivers reported symptoms using the Social Responsiveness Scale and the Social Communication Questionnaire. The structure of autism symptoms was examined using latent variable models that included categories, dimensions, or hybrid models specifying categories and subdimensions. Diagnostic efficiency statistics evaluated the proposed DSM-5 algorithm in identifying ASD. A hybrid model that included both a category (ASD versus non-ASD) and two symptom dimensions (social communication/interaction and restricted/repetitive behaviors) was more parsimonious than all other models and replicated across measures and subsamples. Empirical classifications from this hybrid model closely mirrored clinical ASD diagnoses (90% overlap), implying a broad ASD category distinct from non-ASD. DSM-5 criteria had superior specificity relative to DSM-IV-TR criteria (0.97 versus 0.86); however sensitivity was lower (0.81 versus 0.95). Relaxing DSM-5 criteria by requiring one less symptom criterion increased sensitivity (0.93 versus 0.81), with minimal reduction in specificity (0.95 versus 0.97). Results supported the validity of proposed DSM-5 criteria for ASD as provided in Phase I Field Trials criteria. Increased specificity of DSM-5 relative to DSM-IV-TR may reduce false positive diagnoses, a particularly relevant consideration for low base rate clinical settings. Phase II testing of DSM-5 should consider a relaxed algorithm, without which as many as 12% of ASD-affected individuals, particularly females, will be missed. Relaxed DSM-5 criteria may improve identification of ASD, decreasing societal costs through appropriate early diagnosis and maximizing intervention resources. © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Source


Kim Y.T.,Seoul National University | Kim Y.T.,Genomic Medicine Institute | Seong Y.W.,Seoul National University | Jung Y.J.,Genomic Medicine Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: The presence of mutation in EGFR gene is known as a predictive marker for the response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. However, whether or not these EGFR mutations are prognostic factors for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is debatable. METHODS: We retrospectively collected a series of samples from patients whose EGFR mutation status had been tested, and analyzed their survival. The pathologic cell types of 863 patients (520 men, 343 women) were squamous cell carcinoma in 227, adenocarcinoma in 636 patients. RESULTS: EGFR mutations were detected in 354 patients and it was frequently observed in adenocarcinoma in younger, early-stage, female never-smokers. In univariate analysis of younger, early-stage, never-smoker women, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma pattern and the presence of EGFR mutation showed better long-term survival. However, in multivariate analysis, age, pathologic stage, and smoking status remained significant prognostic factors, whereas EGFR mutation was not. For recurrence, pathologic stage was the only independent prognostic factor. After recurrence, smoking status was the only significant risk factor that affected postrecurrence survival. However, when EGFR TKIs were used in EGFR-mutated patients, survival was longer than for those treated with conventional chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Although the EGFR mutation is a predictive marker for EGFR TKI response, it is not a prognostic factor in NSCLC. The clinical observation that patients with EGFR mutation seem to survive longer may be because EGFR mutation is more frequently associated with other good prognostic factors. Once there is a recurrence, administration of EGFR TKI for patients with EGFR mutation may increase survival. Copyright © 2012. Source

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