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São Paulo, Brazil

Bessa T.A.F.,Zoonosis Control Center | Spichler A.,Institute of Infectology Emilio Ribas | Berardis Chapola E.G.,Zoonosis Control Center | Husch A.C.,Zoonosis Control Center | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

The biodiversity of potential leptospiral reservoir hosts is lower in urban than in rural environments. Previous data indicate the potential for bats to act as carriers of Leptospira in regions such as the Amazon of South America and in Australia. Yet, little is known about the contribution of bats to leptospirosis in urban environments in South America.This study aimed to test the hypothesis that bats infected with Leptospira are sources of leptospirosis transmission to humans in São Paulo City, Brazil. Six of 343 bats caught in different districts within the city of Sao Paulo (182 insectivorous, 161 frugivorous or nectarivorous) were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for pathogenic Leptospira; no seropositive bats were found.That few renal carriers of Leptospira were found in the city of Sao Paulo suggests that bats are not important in the transmission of leptospirosis to humans in this, and possibly other urban settings. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

An autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis is reported in a dog (Canis familiaris) as an apparently natural infection in a non-endemic area. DNA obtained from spleen and liver samples produced the expected fragment in a Leishmania-specific rDNA-based nested-PCR assay. The PCR product, a 490 bp fragment, was sequenced and the nucleotide sequence was identical to that of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. These results are surprising since no autochthonous human or canine cases of visceral leishmaniasis have ever been reported in this municipality. This case suggests that natural transmission of this disease is occurring in this area. Source

Favoretto S.R.,Instituto Pasteur Of Sao Paulo | Favoretto S.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Campos A.C.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Ozahata C.H.,Secao de Controle de Zoonoses | And 2 more authors.
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo | Year: 2011

Some bat species have adapted to the expanding human population by acquiring the ability to roost in urban buildings, increasing the exposure risk for people and domestic animals, and consequently, the likelihood of transmitting rabies. Three dead bats were found in the yard of a house in an urban area of Jundiaí city in the state of São Paulo in southeast Brazil. Two of the three bats tested positive for rabies, using Fluorescent Antibody and Mouse Inoculation techniques. A large colony of Eptesicus furinalis was found in the house's attic, and of the 119 bats captured, four more tested positive for rabies. The objectives of this study were to report the rabies diagnosis, characterize the isolated virus antigenically and genetically, and study the epidemiology of the colony. Source

Crespillo M.,Mixture Commission of the GHEP ISFG | Crespillo M.,INTCF National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Science | Barrio P.A.,Mixture Commission of the GHEP ISFG | Barrio P.A.,INTCF National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Science | And 33 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2014

One of the main objectives of the Spanish and Portuguese-Speaking Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (GHEP-ISFG) is to promote and contribute to the development and dissemination of scientific knowledge in the area of forensic genetics. Due to this fact, GHEP-ISFG holds different working commissions that are set up to develop activities in scientific aspects of general interest. One of them, the Mixture Commission of GHEP-ISFG, has organized annually, since 2009, a collaborative exercise on analysis and interpretation of autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) mixture profiles. Until now, three exercises have been organized (GHEP-MIX01, GHEP-MIX02 and GHEP-MIX03), with 32, 24 and 17 participant laboratories respectively. The exercise aims to give a general vision by addressing, through the proposal of mock cases, aspects related to the edition of mixture profiles and the statistical treatment. The main conclusions obtained from these exercises may be summarized as follows. Firstly, the data show an increased tendency of the laboratories toward validation of DNA mixture profiles analysis following international recommendations (ISO/IEC 17025:2005). Secondly, the majority of discrepancies are mainly encountered in stutters positions (53.4%, 96.0% and 74.9%, respectively for the three editions). On the other hand, the results submitted reveal the importance of performing duplicate analysis by using different kits in order to reduce errors as much as possible. Regarding the statistical aspect (GHEP-MIX02 and 03), all participants employed the likelihood ratio (LR) parameter to evaluate the statistical compatibility and the formulas employed were quite similar. When the hypotheses to evaluate the LR value were locked by the coordinators (GHEP-MIX02) the results revealed a minor number of discrepancies that were mainly due to clerical reasons. However, the GHEP-MIX03 exercise allowed the participants to freely come up with their own hypotheses to calculate the LR value. In this situation the laboratories reported several options to explain the mock cases proposed and therefore significant differences between the final LR values were obtained. Complete information concerning the background of the criminal case is a critical aspect in order to select the adequate hypotheses to calculate the LR value. Although this should be a task for the judicial court to decide, it is important for the expert to account for the different possibilities and scenarios, and also offer this expertise to the judge. In addition, continuing education in the analysis and interpretation of mixture DNA profiles may also be a priority for the vast majority of forensic laboratories. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Sun H.,Institute of Forensic Science | Sun H.,Sun Yat Sen University | Liu S.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zhang Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | Whittle M.R.,Genomic Engineering Molecular
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2014

The short tandem repeat (STR) loci used in human genetic studies are characterized by having relatively high mutation rates. In particular, to ensure an appropriate evaluation of genetic evidence in parentage and forensic analyses, it is essential to have accurate estimates of the mutation rates associated with the commonly used autosomal and sex chromosome STR loci. Differences in STR mutation rates between different ethnic groups should also be determined. Mutation data from two laboratories working with different ethnic groups were extracted from many meiotic transmissions ascertained for 15 autosomal STR loci currently used in forensic routine. Forty-five thousand and eighty-five trios were checked for the biological consistency of maternity and paternity through the analysis of a minimum of 15 loci. Mutations were scored as paternal, maternal, or ambiguous according to the most parsimonious explanation for the inconsistency, using always the least requiring hypothesis in terms of number of repeat differences. The main findings are: (a) the overall mutation rate across the 15 loci was 9.78 × 10-4 per gamete per generation (95 % CI = 9.30 × 10-4-1.03 × 10 -3), and with just 48 (out of 1,587) exceptions, all of the mutations were single-step; (b) repeat gains were more frequent than losses; (c) longer alleles were found to be more mutable; and (d) the mutation rates differ at some loci between the two ethnic groups. Large worldwide meiotic transmission datasets are still needed to measure allele-specific mutation rates at the STR loci consensually used in forensic genetics. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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