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Bullich G.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Trujillano D.,Genomics and Disease Group | Trujillano D.,University Pompeu Fabra | Trujillano D.,Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute IMIM | And 15 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2015

Genetic diagnosis of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) using Sanger sequencing is complicated by the high genetic heterogeneity and phenotypic variability of this disease. We aimed to improve the genetic diagnosis of SRNS by simultaneously sequencing 26 glomerular genes using massive parallel sequencing and to study whether mutations in multiple genes increase disease severity. High-throughput mutation analysis was performed in 50 SRNS and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) patients, a validation cohort of 25 patients with known pathogenic mutations, and a discovery cohort of 25 uncharacterized patients with probable genetic etiology. In the validation cohort, we identified the 42 previously known pathogenic mutations across NPHS1, NPHS2, WT1, TRPC6, and INF2 genes. In the discovery cohort, disease-causing mutations in SRNS/FSGS genes were found in nine patients. We detected three patients with mutations in an SRNS/FSGS gene and COL4A3. Two of them were familial cases and presented a more severe phenotype than family members with mutation in only one gene. In conclusion, our results show that massive parallel sequencing is feasible and robust for genetic diagnosis of SRNS/FSGS. Our results indicate that patients carrying mutations in an SRNS/FSGS gene and also in COL4A3 gene have increased disease severity. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source


Friedlander M.R.,Genomics and Disease Group | Friedlander M.R.,University Pompeu Fabra | Friedlander M.R.,CIBER ISCIII | Friedlander M.R.,Hospital del Mar Research Institute IMIM | And 37 more authors.
Genome Biology | Year: 2014

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are established regulators of development, cell identity and disease. Although nearly two thousand human miRNA genes are known and new ones are continuously discovered, no attempt has been made to gauge the total miRNA content of the human genome.Results: Employing an innovative computational method on massively pooled small RNA sequencing data, we report 2,469 novel human miRNA candidates of which 1,098 are validated by in-house and published experiments. Almost 300 candidates are robustly expressed in a neuronal cell system and are regulated during differentiation or when biogenesis factors Dicer, Drosha, DGCR8 or Ago2 are silenced. To improve expression profiling, we devised a quantitative miRNA capture system. In a kidney cell system, 400 candidates interact with DGCR8 at transcript positions that suggest miRNA hairpin recognition, and 1,000 of the new miRNA candidates interact with Ago1 or Ago2, indicating that they are directly bound by miRNA effector proteins. From kidney cell CLASH experiments, in which miRNA-target pairs are ligated and sequenced, we observe hundreds of interactions between novel miRNAs and mRNA targets. The novel miRNA candidates are specifically but lowly expressed, raising the possibility that not all may be functional. Interestingly, the majority are evolutionarily young and overrepresented in the human brain.Conclusions: In summary, we present evidence that the complement of human miRNA genes is substantially larger than anticipated, and that more are likely to be discovered in the future as more tissues and experimental conditions are sequenced to greater depth. © 2014 Friedländer et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Trujillano D.,Genomics and Disease Group | Trujillano D.,University Pompeu Fabra | Trujillano D.,Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute IMIM | Perez B.,Centro Of Diagno Stico Of Enfermedades Moleculares | And 23 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2014

Genetic diagnostics of phenylketonuria (PKU) and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficient hyperphenylalaninemia (BH4DH) rely on methods that scan for known mutations or on laborious molecular tools that use Sanger sequencing. We have implemented a novel and much more efficient strategy based on high-throughput multiplex-targeted resequencing of four genes (PAH, GCH1, PTS, and QDPR) that, when affected by loss-of-function mutations, cause PKU and BH4DH. We have validated this approach in a cohort of 95 samples with the previously known PAH, GCH1, PTS, and QDPR mutations and one control sample. Pooled barcoded DNA libraries were enriched using a custom NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Choice array and sequenced using a HiSeq2000 sequencer. The combination of several robust bioinformatics tools allowed us to detect all known pathogenic mutations (point mutations, short insertions/deletions, and large genomic rearrangements) in the 95 samples, without detecting spurious calls in these genes in the control sample. We then used the same capture assay in a discovery cohort of 11 uncharacterized HPA patients using a MiSeq sequencer. In addition, we report the precise characterization of the breakpoints of four genomic rearrangements in PAH, including a novel deletion of 899 bp in intron 3. Our study is a proof-of-principle that high-throughput-targeted resequencing is ready to substitute classical molecular methods to perform differential genetic diagnosis of hyperphenylalaninemias, allowing the establishment of specifically tailored treatments a few days after birth. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


Escaramis G.,Genetic Causes of Disease Group | Escaramis G.,University Pompeu Fabra | Escaramis G.,CIBER ISCIII | Escaramis G.,Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute IMIM | And 35 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Next-generation sequencing technologies expedited research to develop efficient computational tools for the identification of structural variants (SVs) and their use to study human diseases. As deeper data is obtained, the existence of higher complexity SVs in some genomes becomes more evident, but the detection and definition of most of these complex rearrangements is still in its infancy. The full characterization of SVs is a key aspect for discovering their biological implications. Here we present a pipeline (PeSV-Fisher) for the detection of deletions, gains, intra- and inter-chromosomal translocations, and inversions, at very reasonable computational costs. We further provide comprehensive information on co-localization of SVs in the genome, a crucial aspect for studying their biological consequences. The algorithm uses a combination of methods based on paired-reads and read-depth strategies. PeSV-Fisher has been designed with the aim to facilitate identification of somatic variation, and, as such, it is capable of analysing two or more samples simultaneously, producing a list of non-shared variants between samples. We tested PeSV-Fisher on available sequencing data, and compared its behaviour to that of frequently deployed tools (BreakDancer and VariationHunter). We have also tested this algorithm on our own sequencing data, obtained from a tumour and a normal blood sample of a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, on which we have also validated the results by targeted re-sequencing of different kinds of predictions. This allowed us to determine confidence parameters that influence the reliability of breakpoint predictions.Availability:PeSV-Fisher is available at http://gd.crg.eu/tools. © 2013 Escaramís et al. Source


Trujillano D.,Genetic Causes of Disease Group | Trujillano D.,University Pompeu Fabra | Trujillano D.,Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute IMIM | Trujillano D.,CIBER ISCIII | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2013

Background: Here we have developed a novel and much more efficient strategy for the complete molecular characterisation of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene, based on multiplexed targeted resequencing. We have tested this approach in a cohort of 92 samples with previously characterised CFTR mutations and polymorphisms. Methods: After enrichment of the pooled barcoded DNA libraries with a custom NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Choice array (Roche) and sequencing with a HiSeq2000 (Illumina) sequencer, we applied several bioinformatics tools to call mutations and polymorphisms in CFTR. Results: The combination of several bioinformatics tools allowed us to detect all known pathogenic variants (point mutations, short insertions/deletions, and large genomic rearrangements) and polymorphisms (including the poly-T and poly-thymidine-guanine polymorphic tracts) in the 92 samples. In addition, we report the precise characterisation of the breakpoints of seven genomic rearrangements in CFTR, including those of a novel deletion of exon 22 and a complex 85 kb inversion which includes two large deletions affecting exons 4-8 and 12-21, respectively. Conclusions: This work is a proof-of-principle that targeted resequencing is an accurate and cost-effective approach for the genetic testing of CF and CFTR-related disorders (ie, male infertility) amenable to the routine clinical practice, and ready to substitute classical molecular methods in medical genetics. Source

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