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Li X.-J.,Nanyang Technological University | Mishra S.K.,Nanyang Technological University | Wu M.,Institute for Infocomm Research | Zhang F.,Nanyang Technological University | And 2 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

Synthetic lethality (SL) is a novel strategy for anticancer therapies, whereby mutations of two genes will kill a cell but mutation of a single gene will not. Therefore, a cancer-specific mutation combined with a drug-induced mutation, if they have SL interactions, will selectively kill cancer cells. While numerous SL interactions have been identified in yeast, only a few have been known in human. There is a pressing need to systematically discover and understand SL interactions specific to human cancer. In this paper, we present Syn-Lethality, the first integrative knowledge base of SL that is dedicated to human cancer. It integrates experimentally discovered and verified human SL gene pairs into a network, associated with annotations of gene function, pathway, and molecular mechanisms. It also includes yeast SL genes from high-throughput screenings which are mapped to orthologous human genes. Such an integrative knowledge base, organized as a relational database with user interface for searching and network visualization, will greatly expedite the discovery of novel anticancer drug targets based on synthetic lethality interactions. The database can be downloaded as a stand-alone Java application. © 2014 Xue-juan Li et al. Source

Guo J.,Nanyang Technological University | Liu H.,Nanyang Technological University | Liu H.,Changzhou University | Zheng J.,Nanyang Technological University | Zheng J.,Genome Institute of Singapore GIS
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2016

Synthetic lethality (SL) is a type of genetic interaction between two genes such that simultaneous perturbations of the two genes result in cell death or a dramatic decrease of cell viability, while a perturbation of either gene alone is not lethal. SL reflects the biologically endogenous difference between cancer cells and normal cells, and thus the inhibition of SL partners of genes with cancer-specific mutations could selectively kill cancer cells but spare normal cells. Therefore, SL is emerging as a promising anticancer strategy that could potentially overcome the drawbacks of traditional chemotherapies by reducing severe side effects. Researchers have developed experimental technologies and computational prediction methods to identify SL gene pairs on human and a few model species. However, there has not been a comprehensive database dedicated to collecting SL pairs and related knowledge. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive database, Syn-LethDB (http://histone.sce.ntu.edu.sg/SynLethDB/), which contains SL pairs collected from biochemical assays, other related databases, computational predictions and text mining results on human and four model species, i.e. mouse, fruit fly, worm and yeast. For each SL pair, a confidence score was calculated by integrating individual scores derived from different evidence sources. We also developed a statistical analysis module to estimate the druggability and sensitivity of cancer cells upon drug treatments targeting human SL partners, based on large-scale genomic data, gene expression profiles and drug sensitivity profiles on more than 1000 cancer cell lines. To help users access and mine the wealth of the data, we developed other practical functionalities, such as search and filtering, orthology search, gene set enrichment analysis. Furthermore, a user-friendly web interface has been implemented to facilitate data analysis and interpretation. With the integrated data sets and analytics functionalities, SynLethDB would be a useful resource for biomedical research community and pharmaceutical industry. © The Author(s) 2015. Source

Andiappan A.K.,Agency for Science, Technology and Research Singapore | Melchiotti R.,Agency for Science, Technology and Research Singapore | Poh T.Y.,Agency for Science, Technology and Research Singapore | Nah M.,Agency for Science, Technology and Research Singapore | And 26 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2015

Neutrophils are an abundant immune cell type involved in both antimicrobial defence and autoimmunity. The regulation of their gene expression, however, is still largely unknown. Here we report an eQTL study on isolated neutrophils from 114 healthy individuals of Chinese ethnicity, identifying 21,210 eQTLs on 832 unique genes. Unsupervised clustering analysis of these eQTLs confirms their role in inflammatory responses and immunological diseases but also indicates strong involvement in dermatological pathologies. One of the strongest eQTL identified (rs2058660) is also the tagSNP of a linkage block reported to affect leprosy and Crohn's disease in opposite directions. In a functional study, we can link the C allele with low expression of the β-chain of IL18-receptor (IL18RAP). In neutrophils, this results in a reduced responsiveness to IL-18, detected both on the RNA and protein level. Thus, the polymorphic regulation of human neutrophils can impact beneficial as well as pathological inflammatory responses. Source

Mishra S.K.,Nanyang Technological University | Bhowmick S.S.,Nanyang Technological University | Chua H.E.,Nanyang Technological University | Zhang F.,Nanyang Technological University | And 2 more authors.
BMC Systems Biology | Year: 2015

The ongoing cancer research has shown that malignant tumour cells have highly disrupted signalling transduction pathways. In cancer cells, signalling pathways are altered to satisfy the demands of continuous proliferation and survival. The changes in signalling pathways supporting uncontrolled cell growth, termed as rewiring, can lead to dysregulation of cell fates e.g. apoptosis. Hence comparative analysis of normal and oncogenic signal transduction pathways may provide insights into mechanisms of cancer drug-resistance and facilitate the discovery of novel and effective anti-cancer therapies. Here we propose a hybrid modelling approach based on ordinary differential equation (ODE) and machine learning to map network rewiring in the apoptotic pathways that may be responsible for the increase of drug sensitivity of tumour cells in triple-negative breast cancer. Our method employs Genetic Algorithm to search for the most likely network topologies by iteratively generating simulated protein phosphorylation data using ODEs and the rewired network and then fitting the simulated data with real data of cancer signalling and cell fate. Most of our predictions are consistent with experimental evidence from literature. Combining the strengths of knowledge-driven and data-driven approaches, our hybrid model can help uncover molecular mechanisms of cancer cell fate at systems level. © 2015 Mishra et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Andiappan A.K.,National University of Singapore | Wang D.Y.,National University of Singapore | Anantharaman R.,National University of Singapore | Parate P.N.,National University of Singapore | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an atopic disease which affects about 600 million people worldwide and results from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. However genetic association studies on known candidate genes yielded variable results. The aim of this study is to identify the genetic variants that influence predisposition towards allergic rhinitis in an ethnic Chinese population in Singapore using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach. A total of 4461 ethnic Chinese volunteers were recruited in Singapore and classified according to their allergic disease status. The GWAS included a discovery stage comparing 515 atopic cases (including 456 AR cases) and 486 non-allergic non-rhinitis (NANR) controls. The top SNPs were then validated in a replication cohort consisting of a separate 2323 atopic cases (including 676 AR cases) and 511 NANR controls. Two SNPs showed consistent association in both discovery and replication phases; MRPL4 SNP rs8111930 on 19q13.2 (OR = 0.69, Pcombined = 4.46×10-05) and BCAP SNP rs505010 on chromosome 10q24.1 (OR = 0.64, Pcombined = 1.10×10-04). In addition, we also replicated multiple associations within known candidates regions such as HLA-DQ and NPSR1 locus in the discovery phase. Our study suggests that MRPL4 and BCAP, key components of the HIF-1α and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways respectively, are two novel candidate genes for atopy and allergic rhinitis. Further study on these molecules and their signaling pathways would help in understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis and identification of targets for new therapeutic intervention. © 2011 Andiappan et al. Source

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